Annotated Bibliography 3

“Martin Luther King Jr National Historic Site.” National Park Foundation. National Park Foundation, 2012. Web. 23 Feb. 2016.
The Martin Luther King Jr. National Historical Site was created by Rosa Parks in honor of Martin Luther King. The site is located in downtown Atlanta and its main attraction is to many of tourist locally and nationally. The site covers over 23 acres and also owns Martin Luther King birthplace. Since the popularity has risen from the site the Trust for Public Land purchased five homes on Auburn Ave. The TPL has also purchase more than ten properties for the park since 1990. The expansion of the site relates to how the built environment can control the community and involuntary put barriers on residences. Since the  TPL as bough up most of Auburn Avenue , the old residents or any future ones will not be able to live there. This source has brought up the various times that the government or TPL has purchased unnecessary land to build on the site , which inconvenienced many residents to give up there property. This built environment places restrictions on people on which involuntary forces them to move outside of Auburn Avenue because of the TPL possessive intentions.

Mid Term Reflection

Throughout the six weeks I’ve been enrolled in this course , I’ve have obtain a great amount of knowledge and understanding with the assignments and technology. Reading 1102 hybrid class has shown me new ways to use a computer to my advantage and become a expert at using a blog on a daily basis. Throughout this course, I have reflected on how different the class is from my English 1101 class. In this course , we make use of the technology around us which is a asset by enrolling in this class. when I was in english 1101 , we rarely used technology for our writings because most work was displayed on dry erase board rather than a computer. Most of our writings was written on paper which  limits my ability of research and understanding , because sometimes technology wasn’t permitted or accessible. I’m still adjusting to mastering concepts of primary and secondary research but I have realized that the annotated bibliographies , reading summaries and built environment description all play hand in hand with research. I’ve came to understand that the projects here and there comes to form one big research analysis which will be finished at the end of the semester. I plan to use the knowledge I’ve acquired through the assignments as a stepping stone to understand the big picture ( research analysis).The rhetorical situation is created on how built environments are more than a physical design, in fact , built environments affects why certain people go to certain places, intentionally and unintentionally regulates a certain group , and nonetheless influences the way we perceive society with material possessions. Our audience , the community of Atlanta  may use this information we have obtained to better understand what a built environment is and how it plays a major role in society. Writing using a blog is different from typing an ordinary paper because your able to engage in a social community to see and take notes on your class mates work, and to publish your creations on a blog for everyone to see and refer to unlike a ordinary paper where you get that perspective from only one or two people versus one or two hundred people. Writing through blogs help me write confident, because I am able to pull different sources into my writing and overshadow  my classmates work to get a sense of how papers should be written. My strengths as a writer is that i’m descriptive , However I tend to write off topic which i’m trying to work on. Even though I have my weaknesses with writing I try to balance out by doing extra credit in quizzes. The Quizzes on D2L has helped me the most because it grasp the concept of writing. Overall , I’m not satisfied with the work I put in this class , but I’ve learned the best way to get an A is to stay ahead so I can receive the most points as possible. To receive an A this class I will change my approach on the way I write my reading summaries by reading the writers 2.0 book and take notes to help put together a detailed vivid assignments such as ( built environments , and reading summaries ).The extra points I will try to receive to help me produce better work  by going to office hours to understand my performance in the class and to continue completing quizzes to help me understand how to write better.

Making Bathrooms More Accommodating

Making Bathrooms more accommodating has been an issue for a while , because bathrooms are not really accommodating. ‘‘Accommodate’’ comes from the Latin for ‘‘to make fitting.’’ It means to adapt, to bring into agreement or harmony, to furnish with something desired or needed, to favor or oblige(Bazelon 2015).Women and men are “use to” the requirements of bathrooms and are forced to give up certain freedoms because of their physical appearance. According to Bazelon , Bathrooms are worried spaces that people are forced to feel defenseless.Society has raised awareness about segregation with color, people with disabilities, and social classes ; However , they are blind to the segregation of bathrooms. Bathrooms force men and women to go in a certain space that they may or may not feel comfortable in. These spaces uses physical appearance to dictate who goes where. Using physical traits to separate people can become a concern of transgender people.Transgenders often conflict with picking a designated bathroom. Should a transgender man go to the women bathroom because he partially meet the  physical criteria of being a women or should they be judged off original gender? I am  sure these questions play a big role to transgender people when they are deciding to pick a certain space they are comfortable in. Even though transgenders often struggles with the inconvenience of sex-based bathrooms , it causes problems for regular men and women. Imagine waiting in line for a open stall in your designated bathroom while the opposite sex bathroom is vacant.One shouldn’t be inconvenience because one doesn’t meet the physical criteria. Furthermore one shouldn’t feel have to feel uncomfortable because the people that share common women/men features makes them feel like they don’t belong. In addition , bathrooms are another example of how built environments controls an community. From Bazelon’s perspective , Accommodating bathrooms only accommodates a particular group which can causes involuntary segregation. In male bathrooms , there are bathroom urinals that accommodate men , but if a young lady was in a hurry to use the restroom but the ladies room was full she will be forced to wait until she was able to urinate in the “women stalls”. So when we look back on the definition “accommodating” it doesn’t adjust to to everyone needs. In conclusion bathrooms can’t accommodate society by labeling certain spaces based on physical identities.The problem is that this vastly oversimplifies the experience of transgender people and the biology of chromosomes, which can appear in other combinations. There is a spectrum of male and female, and no one definition of accommodation (Bazelon 2015). Bathrooms can’t accommodate one group without inconveniencing the other.In addition , to eliminate the problems that sex based bathrooms causes is to have private unisex bathrooms.There is a spectrum of male and female, and no one definition of accommodation. Some people, transgender or otherwise, like single-stall bathrooms that are unisex (or all-gender, the word that’s lately in favor)(Bazelon 2015).In conclusion bathrooms shouldn’t make people choose a certain identity , it should be a space where one shouldn’t have to feel vulnerable nor feel like they don’t belong because they don’t meet the physical appearance.


Work Cited

Bazelon, Emily. “Making Bathrooms More Accommodating.” New York Times Magazine.17 Nov 2015. Web. 18 Feb 2016.

Reading Summary 3

The article “Recognizing Campus Landscapes as Learning Spaces” by Kathleen G. Scholl and Gowri Betrabet, explains how natural spaces promotes attention learning resources for students. According to Scholl and Gulwadi , technology impacts students learning potential and open fields , green trees with nature’s flowers and insects provides a better learning and attention space for students . Many may think technology benefits students learning and attention abilities because of the discoveries and cures that’s been revealed from technology; However , it has became a major concern for its students and feel as though natural spaces inhibits one’s attention span. Natural spaces creates a learning environment for students and promote better studying skills. In addition , Universities are responsible for providing natural spaces to enhance learning for students. Today , Most university’s give more energy into the latest technology , modern classrooms , and the physical design of the buildings rather than the natural spaces such as , open fields and spacious trees. Most campuses are ignoring the learning benefits of natural spaces and just use them to provide more technological and modern spaces.Today’s university must be resilient spaces in which the learning environment encompasses more than technology upgrades , classroom additions , and its academic buildings – in fact , the entire campus , including its open space ,must be perceived as a holistic learning experience (Gumprecht,2003 ;Gutierrez 2013 ;Kenny , Dumont,& Kenny , 2005 ). University’s should focus on providing more spacious environments because students like my self , find it difficult to focus on school work when there is technology present. Technology is a beneficial source when accumulating research However , it can be a major distraction in student learning environments. Increased technology use within today’s multitasking society is likely to hijack a student’s attentional resource placing her/him at risk of underachieving academic learning goals and undermining success at a university ( Fried,2008; Tennessen,& Cimprich,  1995; Wentworth & Middleton , 2014. In addition , technology decreases students productivity and it can undermine students success by limiting their attention spans and creativity. Knowing the technology distractions , University’s are still blind to students need for natural spaces. Eventhough ,technology has played a role in everyday life , Universities shouldn’t feel obligated to stay “up to date ” with technological advances because it misrepresent the purpose of a college campus. The word campus , (derived from a latin word  for “field”- “an expanse surrounded…by woods,higher ground , etc.,Harper, n.d.) was associated with college grounds to describe Princeton University in the 1770’s (Eckert,2012;Turner, 1984) and now refers to the overall physical quality of higher education institutions (Bowman, 2011). Early American college priority’s  was not to keep pace with technological advances. Their objective was to provide natural spaces and let students roam free with their knowledge creativity and learning efficiency. Early institutions like Cornell University , has still maintained to provide natural spaces for their students. Sixty-six percent of Cornell’s campus consist of natural spaces which correlates with their 87% graduation rate. In Conclusion student’s educational success heavily depends on their environment. Can you imagine trying to compose a 5 page essay in a busy City , closed in 4 walls , with technology hovering around you? One can admit that their focus and their work is better when they are in open space. Natural spaces promote attention efficiency and University’s should focus on promoting students learning environments with natural spaces.



work cited

Scholl,Kathleen, & Gowri Betrabet Gulwadu. “Recognizing campus Landscapes as Learning Spaces.” Journal of Learning Spaces [Online], 4.1 (2015): n. pag. Web.19 Feb.2016

*NERSESSOVA, IRINA. “Tapestry Of Space: Domestic Architecture And Underground Communities In Margaret Morton’s Photography Of A Forgotten New York.” Disclosure 23 (2014): 26. Advanced Placement Source. Web. 20 Nov. 2015.

The article, “Tapestry of Space: Domestic Architecture and Underground Communities in Margaret Morton’s Photography of a Forgotten New York”. Explains the true meaning of homelessness. Nersessova has conveyed that home renters and financiers are just as vulnerable as homeless people. Society has categorized homeless people as poor and unstable by their physical home. However, society feel as though if one have a home above ground that one is stable and financially secured. Nersessova claim is that home renters are in fact “homeless” because their home is owned by a landlord or renter. Nersessova explains that their vulnerability is  similar because both categories don’t rightfully own anything and can be moved out just as quickly as a “homeless person”. The article explains that homeless people are in fact not homeless because they go to their own environment that they created underground. When one drives through the tunnel, they may see cardboard boxes and various types of blankets, and graffiti. One may convey that these are where “homeless people” stay but to Nesessova these are where people who do have a home stay , but the physical appearance is different. One doesn’t has to have four windows, a door, and a kitchen to become not homeless. One can be just as homeless as someone living under the tunnel if they don’t rightfully own that property. Many people judge homeless people on material circumstances. If someone see a person going inside a house that is not owned by them, but is big and fancy they will assume that they are stable. On the other hand, when one see a homeless person going to their cardboard box , they automatically assume they are homeless and unstable. Many use spectacle to create this visual image on how one feel they should live and posses. “The term “spectacle” is used to comment on society’s reliance on consumption through image promotion; therefore, in a society of the spectacle, individuals understand themselves by means of mass media. Human relationships and contact are thoroughly influenced by images of commodities people are made to feel they need, and the accumulation of commodities evolves into that of spectacles because people can no longer directly experience reality. Everything is a representation, and images dictate what people desire to have.”(Nersessova [1]) From this article Nersessova displayed that society has brainwashed people into thinking that a “stable home” is a home that above ground with material desires and mass media have portrayed that one should have and possess these materials and have a certain type of house. However a house is a form of creatively and a reflection of one self , the house can be above or underground, made from cardboard or stone. The ability to lose that creation is as fragile housed person , meaning that if one is homeless or housed the ability to lose their home is the same. If one doesn’t own a house, and they stop making payments they will be forced out there home. In addition , if a homeless person “home” was destroyed by  pedestrian or public officials it would cause the same impact on the person houses or not housed. In conclusion society has lost the true definition of homelessness , and has let society misinterpreted the true definition of a “home”.

*SCHINDLER, SARAH. “Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination And Segregation Through Physical Design Of The Built Environment.” Yale Law Journal 124.6 (2015): 1934-2024. Academic Search Complete. Web. 20 Nov. 2015.

Throughout history, people have used varied methods to exclude undesirable Individuals from places where they were not wanted (Schindler p.1942). The article, SCHINDLER, SARAH. “Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation through Physical Design of The Built Environment” convey that white/wealthier classes were voluntarily condoning the use of built environments to segregate people by their class or ethnicity. From New York to Atlanta, people are manipulating built environment’s for racial and prejudice circumstances. A built environment such as a bridge is built intentionally low so that public transportation (buses), are not be able to get through the bridge. Buses were mainly used by people of a lower class and minorities such as African Americans. “Wealthy, mostly white residents of the northern Atlanta suburbs have vocally opposed efforts to expand MARTA into their neighborhoods for the reason that doing so would give people of color easy access to suburban communities. The lack of public transit connections to areas north of the city makes it difficult for those who rely on transit—primarily the poor and people of color—to access job opportunities located in those suburbs” (Schindler p.1937). This statement gives proof of the higher class malicious intent to segregate themselves from minorities. The higher class blinds the legal enforcement by explaining that restricting public transportation would reduce noise and promote safety, which is not necessarily true. However, the law enforcers abide by the higher class justifications and therefore didn’t permit buses coming to the wealthier/white neighborhoods. The majority (whites), uses the built environment’s to their advantage to eliminate black people form their community. People that shapes the built environment (Infrastructures) has ultimately used the built environment as a form of regulation than physical design. These physical barriers in place forces minorities and poor people to not have access to well-paid jobs, or access to upscale living. In addition the “slight in convenience “is forcing them to stay in their environment.This “slight convenience” is causing states , Tennessee , to build a highway indirectly to separate whites and negro’s communities.”One could view this as a prime example of a court suggesting that architecture is not its business; the court failed to see this architectural decision as a regulatory decision with which it should be concerned. Rather, it saw the architectural decision as an issue for planners, engineers, and the executive—rather than the legislative or judicial—branches of government The whites are creating physical barriers to separate themselves and law enforcement fail to see it”.(Schindler 1999).The injustice practices that have been accepted throughout the United States proves that segregation is still alive today its just a different method. Using these built environments and persuading law enforcement that its anything besides racism is false and has been proven with many scenario’s(buses, highways , and road signs).  Throughout this article, Schindler focuses on how government and infrastructures uses physical environments such as, bridges, road signs, and public transportation to regulate segregation and discrimination across the United States and inhibit minorities to from accessing better environments and migrating to where they please.


Annotated Bibilography 2

Busch, Allyson. “A Kingdom Divided: The King Center vs. the MLK Jr. National Historic Site.” Atlanta Magazine 15 Jan. 2015. Print.

This magazine article which was found in Atlanta Magazine depicts the importance of both the king center as well as the historical site of the king family. Every year from January 19th until the 25th, these two locations are flooded with tourists looking to show appreciation to one of the biggest civil rights activist in history. While the historical site gives tourist a first hand look at the King house as well as his resting place. The king center acts a place comprised of various articles and artifacts from MLK’s prime during the Civil Rights Movement. From this article I have gathered that the King center has played a huge part in the growth of this city’s civil rights appreciation. The historical site for MLK is comprised of a 35 acre district as well as the ebenezer church that MLK himself attended. This site has taken shape within the city by giving citizens and tourist a place to show there respects to the King family and indulge in an endless feast of historical information. I chose this source because I felt that it had the largest effect on the people of this city in comparison to my other options. The King Center and historical site has brought together millions of people nationwide to all enact in Showing appreciation to the King family and organization. This source was found in the Atlanta magazine so the biggest flaw was the length of the article. The article was published last January right before MLK day and included pictures as well. The article was also a bit general I’m some aspects pertaining to the contents of the King Center , but what could not be found in this source was located in another. The largest point that binds these sources together are there descriptions of the King Center. The relationship between this source and the others is the fact that they all talk about the importance of the King Center in relation to the information it provides for students, citizens, and tourists.

Annotated Bibliography 1

Eskew, Glenn T. “King Center.” New Georgia Encyclopedia. 10 January 2014. Web. 05 February 2016.

The Martin Luther King Jr. Center for Nonviolent Social Change located in Atlanta Georgia, is a non-profit organization that provides education and relevance to students and tourist about his mission for world peace and equality. The king Center was established in King’s home by his widow , Coretta Scott King in 1968. The King Center gives a visual display of King’s early life , his work through the Civil Rights Movement , and other leaders ( Ghandi and Rosa Parks ) to inspire and educate his philosophy for nonviolence and world peace. This built environment intentionally promotes King’s philosophy on equality by providing a museum , artifacts and original documents to keep his vision alive throughout Atlanta. This source relates to how built environments impacts people physically because it uses the beautiful 23 acre campus, the library , archives , classrooms, and a gift shop in the heart of Atlanta to physically attract people to the site. This source didn’t provide any weakness, because the source is up to date and provides accurate research about the King Center. The relationship that all the sources share is that the King Center uses their built environment to spread the mission and goals of kings works and keeps his legacy relevant and important.