Annotated Bibliography 10: Improving public perception of Bats

Hoffmaster, Eric, Jennifer Vonk, and Rob Mies. “Education To Action: Improving Public Perception Of Bats.” Animals (2076-2615) 6.1 (2016): 1-9. Academic Search Complete. Web. 25 Mar. 2016.

Bats are generally seen as disease carriers which has given the public a negative image of them. Their connection to vampire lore has also made some people fearful of them.  The article is trying to change the peoples perception of bats buy stating how they are a vital and valuable part of the ecosystem, providing a variety of essential services like pest control and plant pollination. Bats belong to the Chiropteran order which is large and diverse, these creatures can be found at seaside or desserts. These amazing creatures are estimated to save corn farmers 1 billion USD globally by preying on agriculture pests. Researchers have believe that bat boxes would be economically viable for farmers to use compared to pesticide. Yet bats are the victim of turbines, human encroachment, and pesticides. The articles points out how people showed be trying to protect bats considering their important to the environments and how they might if their perception of bats changes.

Annotated Bibliography 9: Sociability and gazing toward humans in dogs and wolves: Simple behaviors with broad implications

Bentosela, Mariana, et al. “Sociability And Gazing Toward Humans In Dogs And Wolves: Simple Behaviors With Broad Implications.” Journal Of The Experimental Analysis Of Behavior 105.1 (2016): 68-75. PsycINFO. Web. 25 Mar. 2016.

Sociability is defined as the ability to approach and interact with unfamiliar people. The article is mainly about the study that was conducted to compare sociability and gaze behavior in domestic dogs and human socialized captive wolves in order to identify the relative influence of domestication in the human-dog bond. Gaze behavior is when people or animas direct their gaze to visible hand movement goals. Two experiments were conducted the results were that dogs showed higher levels of interspecific sociability than wolves even when no attention was available.  Studies have shown lifetime experiences are important in the development of the bond between dogs and humans. For example , shelter dogs remained closer to passive unknown humans then pet dogs, but also showed more fear-appeasement behavior. One of the most important consequence of domestication is that dogs and humans have become social partners, the dogs forming an attachment with their owners.

Image result for domestication of wolves and dogs


Annotated Bibliography 4: Perception of Available space During Chimpanzee Introductions

Herrelko, Elizabeth S., Hannah M. Buchanan-Smith, and Sarah-Jane Vick. “Perception Of Available Space During Chimpanzee Introductions: Number Of Accessible Areas Is More Important Than Enclosure Size.” Zoo Biology 34.5 (2015): 397-405. PsycINFO. Web. 24 Feb. 2016.

The article is about the importance of being able to restrict animals in different places in their enclosure in Animal Management practices. This restriction  causes a decrease in available space, which limits the animals activities and effect their social dynamic. A study of the behavioral, welfare-related responses of two groups of housed chimpanzees proved the importance of providing modular enclosure that provide choice and flexible usage. The study showed that arousal related scratching and yawning decreased as the number of enclosure ares increased. The decrease in arousal related yawning and scratching  shows the the number available areas in the enclosure is more important then the total amount of space .

One of the important elements of animal management is safely being able to move animals between enclosure areas so they can care for the animals needs. Husbandry requirements may temporarily limit the animals to off-exhibit ares for things like: cleaning, maintenance, or animal introductions.