Lawrence, A B, and E Wall. “Selection For ‘Environmentai Fit’ From Existing Domesticated Species.” Revue Scientifique Et Technique (International Office Of Epizootics) 33.1 (2014): 171-179. MEDLINE with Full Text. Web. 24 Mar. 2016.
The articles is about the history of animals breeding. Which has a very long history in which farm animals where breed for human benefits. Using a process called selection, in the articles selection refers to the genetic improvement of animals with artificial selection. Recently the practice of animal breeding has become more sophisticated, increasing the speed of production traits. For example, the rate of growth (increased) in animals. However there’s also been some well documented evidence of negative fertility and health issues in high yielding dairy cattle. The author of this article is trying to explore the questions surrounding breeding and welfare. Concluding that there is a better need for an understanding of genotype and the environments effect on health and welfare traits in order to get breeding programs to improve environmental fit in animals.
Kurtycz, Laura M. “Choice And Control For Animals In Captivity.” Psychologist 28.11 (2015): 892-894. Academic Search Complete. Web. 26 Feb. 2016.
The article discuss the subject of learned helpfulness, which is caused by lack of control. Animals in captivity also face this problem. The captivity can lead to serious negative consequences and evidenced behaviorally and psychology. However, the hypothesis is that providing choices to captivated animals may alleviate these choices. Researchers have found that animals all have their own individual preference. Animals like specific food, social partners, and activities. Also, that animals in captivity will work for things they like chimpanzee.
It’s important to understand animals preferences when designing environments and enrichments for them. Researchers have found that having a choice has a positive effect on behavior. Zoo(s) are well equipped to deal with this question, because they usually have animals exhibits with several different locations for the animals. These buildings usually have an indoor and outdoor habitat, one viewable to the public the other is not. For example, when sheep’s where given the option to retreat from the public, they showed lower rates of undesirable behaviors.