Annotated Bibliography Two

This is the image of the homeless man and women being evicted from their tents in Wooduff Park in Downtown, Atlanta.


Childress, Sarah, et al. “Mental Illness And Substance Use Problems In Relation To Homelessness Onset.” American Journal Of Health Behavior 39.4 (2015): 549-555 7p. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 23 Feb. 2016.


In the article, “Mental Illness and Substance Use Problems In Relations To Homelessness Onset”, author, Sarah Childress discusses the association between mental illness, substance use, and homelessness. Childress Childress’ article studied 394 homeless adults and gathered a plethora of statistical evidence to establish a relationship. The study took place in Dallas, Texas and was comprised of random homeless men and women who saw the flyers and wanted to participate. However, the criteria they were required to meet were that they must be at least 18 years old, English-speaking, and have a 7th grade literacy level. Of the participants that Childress studied, 124 of them reported you-onset homelessness. The homeless youth reported “using substances to attenuate the negative psychological effects of living on the streets, to reduce depressive symptoms, and to stay awake when they experience difficulty finding a safe place to sleep” (Childress, 550). A problem that Childress remarked was how the youth tend to be less likely to seek help, thus face the same or worsened drug and psychological problems into adulthood. Based on the mental illness related statistics that Childress obtained, “64.7% of the sample reported a major depression diagnosis, 41.1% a bipolar disorder diagnosis, and 25.4% schizophrenia or a schizoaffective disorder diagnosis at some point over the lifetime” (Childress, 551). Similarly, the statistics for self-reported problematic substance use were also high. The purpose of Childress’ article was to see if there was in fact a relationship between mental illness, substance use, and homelessness. While I feel as though the article provided substantial statistical evidence to support the relationship, it failed to compare mental illness and drug use to people who are not homeless; thus their homelessness may be unrelated.


Bruce, Douglas, et al. “Modeling Minority Stress Effects On Homelessness And Health Disparities Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men.” Journal Of Urban Health 91.3 (2014): 568-580 13p. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 23 Feb. 2016.

Throughout the article, “Modeling Minority Stress Effects On Homelessness And Health Disparities Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men”, author Douglas Bruce explores the relationship between sexuality and homelessness amongst adolescents. Based on extensive research, Bruce claims that homosexual youth are more likely to experience homelessness than heterosexual youth. The minority stress theory is also discussed in the article and believes that the “transitional period between adolescence and adulthood may be reshaped by experiencing homelessness or being kicked out of one’s parental home”(Bruce, 568). As a result, the physical and mental health of the adolescents is impaired, which may make it more difficult for them to escape homelessness, as they grow older. Bruce studied 200 young men who have sex with men in an effort to identify the association between sexuality, drug use, and homelessness. He found that the young men who are homosexual and got kicked out of the house had a higher rate of homelessness and daily marijuana use. The article proved the correlation between sexuality and homelessness.


CBS 46. “Police Warn Homeless Campers of Eviction from Woodruff Park – CBS46 News.” April 10, 2012. Accessed February 5, 2016.


In the news article, “Police Warn Homeless Campers of Eviction from Woodruff Park”, y CBS 46, the dozens of homeless men and women camping in the park are being told that they could not stay there. The article is accompanied by an image of the homeless campers and their tents lining the sidewalk and a couple a police officers standing in front of them. The tents were left in the park after “hundreds of demonstrators camped out for weeks inside the park to protest corporate greed, foreclosures, and wars in the Middle East” CBS 46). However, when they left, the homeless began occupying the tents and living out of them. In response to being asked if alternative shelter was offered to the homeless, Atlanta Police Department Deputy Chief, Renee Propes, said “Absolutely. The United Way was out here. They have transitional housing they can connect these folks too” (CBS 46). Conversely, some of the homeless people, such as Irvin Perrisseaud, feel as though the shelters are dangerous. Without warning or a specific timeframe, they were told to pack up their “homes” and told that they had to leave due to the new ordinance outlawing having tents on the sidewalks and living out of them. Given that man of the homeless men and women are mentally ill or haw drug and alcohol problems, they should probably be helped rather than evicted and told to move. This article provides an example of homelessness in downtown Atlanta, as well as how they are often displaced.

Midterm Reflection

Throughout this semester, I have felt varying emotions about this class. Initially, I felt overwhelmed by the level of independence required and the numerous websites that we had to learn to use. As the semester progressed, I grew more comfortable with it all. At this point, I feel like I understand more about how the websites work, how I will be graded, and how to do well on the assignments. Although establishing that comfort was not easy though and it required patience and an interest in learning, I do feel like I have developed.


My understanding of the composition progress has evolved in a different way then it has in the past. With this course being a hybrid class, I learned to write and do research a little bit differently. It was largely independent. In my previous English classes, we could conduct research in the library together or have articles given to us that we would need to pull information useful of our topic out of. In this class, we had to go search for it on our own, which I had done before too, but with such a large school library, it was a tab bit intimidating. After having done the first reading summaries, annotated bibliography entries, and built environment description, I have learned more about how to use a rubric to guide my work. I have also learned how to gather my own primary research and how to use my research and secondary research to establish a point. One thing that I enjoy about the blogs is how free they are; I can post pictures, reflections, summaries, and customize it. This course really integrates multimodality and has heightened my interest in writing.


As with any thing, there are strengths and weaknesses to my work thus far. One of my strengths has been turning things in on time, which I was a little bit concerned about initially because we do all of that online instead of in class. Another strength includes participating in extra credit work. I have done a study session with Samantha, visited office hours, had a group session with you, done the d2l quizzes, and used my papers as examples in class for workshop. That is probably my best strength. Of those things, I feel as though the office hour visit were the most helpful to me because they provided me with an opportunity to ask one on one questions relating to my work. My major weaknesses, however, is time management. With two jobs, four other classes, a boyfriend, and family obligations, sometimes I can’t start the assignments as early as I would like to. That makes me feel stressed and probably affects the quality of my work. Despite my weakness, I am still confident in the effort that I have put in thus far, however, I would still like to improve.


I plan to apply the information, approvals, and constructive criticisms that I have received up until now to my future projects and work. For example, I struggled with maintaining present tense in the reading summaries and now I understand how to do it properly. I also plan to finish my writings before class time so that they can be reviewed in workshop more often. Although I do the d2l quizzes and 2.0 exercises, I have trouble applying that information to the work we do, so I would like to get better at applying that information. All in all, I feel as though the semester is off to a great start. I still have plenty to learn, but I believe that if I am patient and focused then I am capable of taking it all in!

Reading Summary 4


This is a sign to a gender-neutral restroom. It is for everyone, regardless of how they choose to identify.

Summary of “Making Bathrooms More Accommodating.” By Emily Bazelon

Emily Bazelon’s article, titled “Making Bathrooms More Accommodating”, starts by describing the heteronormative viewpoint that our society exhibits. It illustrates the obvious differences between the Men’s restroom and the Women’s, from the signs on the doors to the “proper” etiquette that is understood. It also describes the strange position that most transgender men and women struggle through on a daily basis. Whether it is at work or in school, many transgender individuals feel isolated or looked down upon for visiting the bathrooms, which most individuals take as commonplace and fundamentally expected.

In the women’s room, the long lines have created a sense of togetherness as women stand together waiting for a stall to open up, while men can enter and exit within the same two minute period. Many feel that their sense of camaraderie will be destroyed if transgender women are allowed to use the same bathroom as them. The issue that many women see is the entrance of the male anatomy into their private escape from the patriarchal society that surrounds them. Opponents of a law that would protect against discrimination in housing and employment, the Broad equal right ordinance, made t-shirts that said “No men in Women’s Bathroom” and used fear mongering to play on the public’s apprehension, by showing a TV ad with frightening images of aggressive men threatening defenseless women. Voters rejected the Ordinance

In schools across the country, Transgender individuals are called by the gender that they assume. This major step is great, but deciding how the school district approaches showering and restrooms has been more complicated. One transgender girl in Illinois was sent to a separate room from both the boys and girls to change. Once a Civil Rights complaint was addressed the government swooped in to rectify the situation. They added a privacy curtain for her use and the other girls. This Solution is an example of accommodation and the author of this essay points out what this means.

The main aspect that she chooses to explain is “moving over to make room for others, whether you want to or not” (Bazelon). Accommodations have been made by congress in many situations. For example, those of certain religions were forced to conform to an American view of their traditions, but in the 1960’s Congress allowed them to express their faith and wear traditional religious clothing or exhibit prayer at certain times. As well, many disabled Americans had issues being in certain buildings for the reason that they couldn’t open doors, get past the stairs, or use the restrooms. In the 1990’s congress created the American with Disabilities Act to make sure accommodations were made so people could live, work, and function in the building without an excessive amount of effort. It is brought up that Transgender Americans have done most of the accommodations without much done for them.

If bathrooms are slightly modified and people are more accepting, Bazelon believes that coexistence is possible. She finally raises the fact that humans all have the need to belong, but also the right. No one should have to change themselves to fit it, yet the Transgender Law center says to either not look at anyone, or try and prove that you are the gender you identify as by pointing out the characteristics that you share with the stereotype of that gender. In my eyes this seems like a truly terrible thing to advise someone. If you identify as a woman but you have a penis, low voice, and muscular features, then who cares. You don’t need to explain yourself or why you are a woman to anyone. If you identify as a man, but you have breasts and a vagina, you don’t need to avoid eye contact and act like you don’t exist to be accepted. You only need to act how you would any other way. Changing yourself to fit it, isnt fitting in. It is being pretending to be something you aren’t.

Reading Summary 3

Summary of “His & Hers: Designing for a Post-Gender Society” by Suzanne Tick

This is an image of Caitlin aka Bruce Jenner. She is transgender and has been working on being accepted as such. She deserves to be accommodated and respected as the woman she is. While it is not easy, changes to how we see things have to be made with her and design.

In Suzanne Tick’s article “His & Hers: Designing for a Post-Gender Society”, discusses how United States textile designers are arguing for more gender-neutral designs. The year is 2016; in this day in age, the line between man and woman is extremely blurred. There are plenty of women who identify as men and men who identify as women. She described this as “a time of gender revolution” (Tick). She argues that the designers should focus on the issues facing society and support acceptance and change.


Tick goes on by describing the widespread and popular modern design. She claims that such a design does not adequately represent both genders. It focuses more on the male gender because the males tend to dominate the work places and occupy a majority of the power in the offices. What about the women, though? Do they not count just because they are the minority? As the wave of feminism and LGBTQ rights movements have gained support, more companies are starting to see understand the importance of gender equality and support it.


As the article goes on, tick gives credit to the corporations that have started to make changes for equality. She uses Google as an example and recognizes how they now have gender-neutral and unisex bathrooms, in addition to conventional restrooms. Their goal with that is to allow “all individuals to feel comfortable, safe, and included- and not have to choose a gender while in the workplace” (Tick). While that goal was accomplished, Google is one company; others should follow in their actions.


A major example that Tick uses in the article is her comparison between accommodating the disabled and accommodating the varying genders. She says that if it can be made mandatory that we adjust establishments for people in wheelchairs, then the same accommodations she be made for other people. Tick does not believe that it should be approached in the same way, though. She admits that “it’s unbelievable how hard it still is to find accessible bathrooms and entryways” (Tick).


While Tick expresses the many ways that companies should be making changes for the changing gender roles, she also acknowledges the confusion associated with the changes. She understands that it can be difficult to make modification for a subject that is not yet understood. However, Tick provides an example of students asking to have their gender unspecified and their schools accepting that. Although it is difficult for people to comprehend amongst the confusion and disapprovals, she goes on to say, “as designers, we can’t fall behind in embracing that, too” (Tick).


Like Tick, I believe that as the world continues to develop and grow, we need to learn how to progress with it. All of those alterations are only the beginning. Tick believes that as the definitions of masculine and feminine change, the way that we treat them should change as well. People be able to should feel accepted regardless of where they are. In our post-gender world, it is important that we be mindful of individual needs.

Built Environment Description

For my external built environment, I chose Downtown, Atlanta. Over the course of the past two weeks, I have spent a few hours exploring and observing the downtown area. With an area as large and as broad as downtown, how could just one image or location properly depict the city? Thus, I collected digital records of various significant places that represent the area pretty well, such as the Atlanta Street Car, Centennial Olympic Park, Woodruff Park, the Jackson Street Bridge, and Octane Coffee. To get to Centennial, I took the Streetcar. When I first moved downtown, over the summer, I rode the streetcar almost every time that I went to the market or to the Centennial area because it was free and easy to access. The night that I went to observe Centennial, it was extremely cold outside, so I opted for taking the streetcar like I did over the summer. This time, however, I had to pay one dollar each way to get there. I personally did not mind paying the dollar because it saves me a two-mile walk. After realizing that the streetcar only takes cards, I was immediately off put by it. It lacked accessibility for the homeless people who use to spend a lot of time on the streetcar during the heat of summer. I felt sad for them when I thought about the fact that they would not be able to ride from point A to point B because many of them do not have debit cards with money on them and it was roughly 20 degrees outside. Each of the other places that I chose to record is public and open to people of all races, genders, and socioeconomic levels. That quality about them was important to me because I wanted to see downtown from the perspective of the average person. Anyone could have seen downtown like I did. Each place offers a sense of comfort and made me feel happy. The past couple of weeks have been particularly cold, so I was shocked to see the fountains at both Centennial and Woodruff parks still pouring with water. I expected them to be frozen and quiet. The bridge filled my heart with solace as I watched the buildings light up the city skyline. Cars zoomed by, some coming into the city and some departing. It was simply beautiful. As for Octane, it is a cute coffee shop that was full of light and busy people. There were people working, reading, studying, and conversing. My favorite aspect of the sites is there inviting nature and the diversity that they offer.

Annotated Bibliography One

Salley, Kim. “Preventing Shelternization: Alleviating The Struggles Of Homeless Individuals And Families In New York City.” Fordham Urban Law Journal 42.4 (2015): 1019-1062. Academic Search Complete. Web. 3 Feb. 2016.


In the article, “Preventing Shelternization: Alleviating The Struggles Of Homeless Individuals And Families In New York City”, author, Kim Salley, discusses the problems that the homeless man and women of New York City face. While the article has several points and is broken up into four sections that also contain sub-sections, I am primarily focusing on the second section titled: “Sate of the Homeless: Factors Contributing to Homelessness and Failed Legislative Policies. Upon acknowledging the growing homeless population and a lack of preventative measures, Salley sought to provide New York with potential solutions to the problem, such as implementing more preventative programs, closing the gap between the minimum wage and the housing wage and establishing a better public assistance to help them get health care and food. Although the article discusses the struggles facing homeless individuals in New York City and my research topic is Downtown, Atlanta, it is still a reputable source because it was acquired through Georgia State University’s library database. Additionally, both places are popular urban cities and it is possible that some of those problems may also be applicable to the homeless population in Atlanta.


Sparks, Sarah D. “Homeless Student Population Still Rising.” Education Week 33.11 (2013): 1-15. MasterFILE Elite. Web. 3 Feb. 2016.


In the article, “Homeless Student Population Still Rising”, author, Sarah Sparks, discusses how the 2008 recession in the United States has impacted the homeless student population. Sparks considers the factors that contribute to the problem, such as the recession itself, a lack of shelter, children being displaced and family need being unmet. In the shelter section, Sparks talks about how these students often have nowhere to go for shelter because the families that would have taken them in were struggling themselves and could not afford to take in anyone else. The section titled “Reasons for Leaving” points out the circumstances encouraging the students to leave such as domestic violence, problems in at home. Another section about family needs labeled transportation as a huge problem for the homeless students. Without transportation, they are unable to get to and from work, which makes it difficult for them to meet their needs. They could not make enough money to pay for transportation, food, shelter, and their education. Due to the fact that Sparks discusses the United States as a whole instead of just one location, the article is applicable to my research topic of Downtown, Atlanta. Given that I got the article through Georgia State University’s library database and Sparks uses statistics to back up her claim that the homeless student population is still rising, I consider it to be reputable source.


“It’s drugs that make people live on streets.” Daily Mail 18 Dec. 2014: 39. Regional Business News. Web. 3 Feb. 2016.


In this news article from Daily Mail titled “It’s drugs that make people live on streets” by Regional Business News, the author claims that the homeless population faces homelessness due to drug addiction. The author acknowledges that there is a need for more affordable housing; however, he believes that no matter how many houses are built, the homeless population will still exist due to the number of homeless men and women who are addicts. He, the author, also points out the problem as predominantly one of the urban areas. The author concludes by stating, “as long as we fail to acknowledge that heroin is still eating away at the very heart of our society, not only will homelessness continue to grow, but it will be the least of our problems” (Daily Mail). This article came from the Georgia State University library database, which provides it with a little bit of credibility, but not entirely. The article fails to recognize the numerous factors other than drugs and affordable housing that also contribute to homelessness. It also labels many of the people on the streets as drug addicts, which discredit those who are on the streets and not on drugs. This article acts as an example for how people often look down on the homeless population, which makes it harder for them to progress.