Annotated Bibliographies 1-10

Salley, Kim. “Preventing Shelternization: Alleviating The Struggles Of Homeless Individuals And Families In New York City.” Fordham Urban Law Journal 42.4 (2015): 1019-1062. Academic Search Complete. Web. 3 Feb. 2016.

In the article, “Preventing Shelternization: Alleviating The Struggles Of Homeless Individuals And Families In New York City”, author, Kim Salley, discusses the problems that the homeless man and women of New York City face. While the article has several points and is broken up into four sections that also contain sub-sections, I am primarily focusing on the second section titled: “Sate of the Homeless: Factors Contributing to Homelessness and Failed Legislative Policies. Upon acknowledging the growing homeless population and a lack of preventative measures, Salley sought to provide New York with potential solutions to the problem, such as implementing more preventative programs, closing the gap between the minimum wage and the housing wage and establishing a better public assistance to help them get health care and food. Although the article discusses the struggles facing homeless individuals in New York City and my research topic is Downtown, Atlanta, it is still a reputable source because it was acquired through Georgia State University’s library database. Additionally, both places are popular urban cities and it is possible that some of those problems may also be applicable to the homeless population in Atlanta.

Sparks, Sarah D. “Homeless Student Population Still Rising.” Education Week 33.11 (2013): 1-15. MasterFILE Elite. Web. 3 Feb. 2016.

In the article, “Homeless Student Population Still Rising”, author, Sarah Sparks, discusses how the 2008 recession in the United States has impacted the homeless student population. Sparks considers the factors that contribute to the problem, such as the recession itself, a lack of shelter, children being displaced and family need being unmet. In the shelter section, Sparks talks about how these students often have nowhere to go for shelter because the families that would have taken them in were struggling themselves and could not afford to take in anyone else. The section titled “Reasons for Leaving” points out the circumstances encouraging the students to leave such as domestic violence, problems in at home. Another section about family needs labeled transportation as a huge problem for the homeless students. Without transportation, they are unable to get to and from work, which makes it difficult for them to meet their needs. They could not make enough money to pay for transportation, food, shelter, and their education. Due to the fact that Sparks discusses the United States as a whole instead of just one location, the article is applicable to my research topic of Downtown, Atlanta. Given that I got the article through Georgia State University’s library database and Sparks uses statistics to back up her claim that the homeless student population is still rising, I consider it to be reputable source.

“It’s drugs that make people live on streets.” Daily Mail 18 Dec. 2014: 39. Regional Business News. Web. 3 Feb. 2016.

In this news article from Daily Mail titled “It’s drugs that make people live on streets” by Regional Business News, the author claims that the homeless population faces homelessness due to drug addiction. The author acknowledges that there is a need for more affordable housing; however, he believes that no matter how many houses are built, the homeless population will still exist due to the number of homeless men and women who are addicts. He, the author, also points out the problem as predominantly one of the urban areas. The author concludes by stating, “as long as we fail to acknowledge that heroin is still eating away at the very heart of our society, not only will homelessness continue to grow, but it will be the least of our problems” (Daily Mail). This article came from the Georgia State University library database, which provides it with a little bit of credibility, but not entirely. The article fails to recognize the numerous factors other than drugs and affordable housing that also contribute to homelessness. It also labels many of the people on the streets as drug addicts, which discredit those who are on the streets and not on drugs. This article acts as an example for how people often look down on the homeless population, which makes it harder for them to progress.

Childress, Sarah, et al. “Mental Illness And Substance Use Problems In Relation To Homelessness Onset.” American Journal Of Health Behavior 39.4 (2015): 549-555 7p. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 23 Feb. 2016.

In the article, “Mental Illness and Substance Use Problems In Relations To Homelessness Onset”, author, Sarah Childress discusses the association between mental illness, substance use, and homelessness. Childress Childress’ article studied 394 homeless adults and gathered a plethora of statistical evidence to establish a relationship. The study took place in Dallas, Texas and was comprised of random homeless men and women who saw the flyers and wanted to participate. However, the criteria they were required to meet were that they must be at least 18 years old, English-speaking, and have a 7th grade literacy level. Of the participants that Childress studied, 124 of them reported you-onset homelessness. The homeless youth reported “using substances to attenuate the negative psychological effects of living on the streets, to reduce depressive symptoms, and to stay awake when they experience difficulty finding a safe place to sleep” (Childress, 550). A problem that Childress remarked was how the youth tend to be less likely to seek help, thus face the same or worsened drug and psychological problems into adulthood. Based on the mental illness related statistics that Childress obtained, “64.7% of the sample reported a major depression diagnosis, 41.1% a bipolar disorder diagnosis, and 25.4% schizophrenia or a schizoaffective disorder diagnosis at some point over the lifetime” (Childress, 551). Similarly, the statistics for self-reported problematic substance use were also high. The purpose of Childress’ article was to see if there was in fact a relationship between mental illness, substance use, and homelessness. While I feel as though the article provided substantial statistical evidence to support the relationship, it failed to compare mental illness and drug use to people who are not homeless; thus their homelessness may be unrelated.

Bruce, Douglas, et al. “Modeling Minority Stress Effects On Homelessness And Health Disparities Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men.” Journal Of Urban Health 91.3 (2014): 568-580 13p. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 23 Feb. 2016.

Throughout the article, “Modeling Minority Stress Effects On Homelessness And Health Disparities Among Young Men Who Have Sex With Men”, author Douglas Bruce explores the relationship between sexuality and homelessness amongst adolescents. Based on extensive research, Bruce claims that homosexual youth are more likely to experience homelessness than heterosexual youth. The minority stress theory is also discussed in the article and believes that the “transitional period between adolescence and adulthood may be reshaped by experiencing homelessness or being kicked out of one’s parental home”(Bruce, 568). As a result, the physical and mental health of the adolescents is impaired, which may make it more difficult for them to escape homelessness, as they grow older. Bruce studied 200 young men who have sex with men in an effort to identify the association between sexuality, drug use, and homelessness. He found that the young men who are homosexual and got kicked out of the house had a higher rate of homelessness and daily marijuana use. The article proved the correlation between sexuality and homelessness.

CBS 46. “Police Warn Homeless Campers of Eviction from Woodruff Park – CBS46 News.” April 10, 2012. Accessed February 5, 2016.

In the news article, “Police Warn Homeless Campers of Eviction from Woodruff Park”, y CBS 46, the dozens of homeless men and women camping in the park are being told that they could not stay there. The article is accompanied by an image of the homeless campers and their tents lining the sidewalk and a couple a police officers standing in front of them. The tents were left in the park after “hundreds of demonstrators camped out for weeks inside the park to protest corporate greed, foreclosures, and wars in the Middle East” CBS 46). However, when they left, the homeless began occupying the tents and living out of them. In response to being asked if alternative shelter was offered to the homeless, Atlanta Police Department Deputy Chief, Renee Propes, said “Absolutely. The United Way was out here. They have transitional housing they can connect these folks too” (CBS 46). Conversely, some of the homeless people, such as Irvin Perrisseaud, feel as though the shelters are dangerous. Without warning or a specific timeframe, they were told to pack up their “homes” and told that they had to leave due to the new ordinance outlawing having tents on the sidewalks and living out of them. Given that man of the homeless men and women are mentally ill or haw drug and alcohol problems, they should probably be helped rather than evicted and told to move. This article provides an example of homelessness in downtown Atlanta, as well as how they are often displaced.

Sanburn, Josh. “The Radically Simple Solution To Homelessness.” Time 187.9 (2016): 19-20. Academic Search Complete. Web. 23 Mar. 2016.

In the New York Times’ article titled “The Radically Simple Solution to Homelessness, the author Josh Sanburn proposed that the problem of homelessness is not as difficult to solve as many people make it out to be. Sanburn acknowledged psychologist Sam Tsemberis’ plan to reverse they way the issue of homelessness way approached. Initially, the U.S. tackled homelessness by first addressing the mental illnesses and substance abuse conflict that was hindering the homeless population from acquiring and maintaining shelter rather than providing them with places to live first. Tsemberis believed that “once people had housing, more often than not, they kept it” (Sanburn, 19). After years of testing Tsemberis’ plan, the “housing first” approach proved itself to be a success. However, Sanburn went on to recognize how much more difficult it is to find permanent housing for increasingly high numbers of homeless people in populous urban areas, such as New York City. In order to get and maintain housing in those areas the issues of safety, health, and budget must be addressed first. In response to the budget problem in Los Angeles, “the council on Feb. 9 approved a $1.85 billion plan that embraces a housing-first approach” (Sanburn, 20). Regardless of the problems that the housing first plan has encountered, Sanburn believes that is shows tremendous promise. This article was publish barely a week ago and addresses the issue of homelessness not only in New York, but also in other highly populated cities, such as Chicago and Los Angeles. With the proper funding, leadership and safety measures, a similar approach could be taken to decrease the homeless population in Atlanta, as well.

Reed, Mayor Kasim. “Atlanta Reduces Homeless Population (and Saves Money in the Process).” CNNMoney, December 11, 2014.

In the CNN article “Atlanta Reduces Homeless Populations (and Saves Money in the Process), Mayor Kasim Reed discusses the innovative ways in which the city of Atlanta partnered with City Hall, local communities, and the private sector to address the one of Atlanta’s major problems, homelessness. Atlanta’s innovation team sought to reduce the number of people who were homeless or in emergency shelters. In 2011, Reed reported that there were ”approximately 4,400 people” of that status (Reed). The team researched the reasons behind the homelessness and with that information, they launched the campaign Unsheltered No More. Unsheltered No More teamed up with over 51 partners with the goal “to house 800 homeless by December 2013” (Reed). By that time, the team exceeded its goal and housed over 1,000 persons. Reed believes that with the help of partnerships and adequate funding, the city can be transformed and the homeless population can be helped. Reed quoted one of his favorite African proverbs to describe the situation- “if you want to go fast, go alone; if you want to go far, go with others”.

Flanagan, Mark W., and Harold E. Briggs. “Substance Abuse Recovery Among Homeless Adults In Atlanta, Georgia, And A Multilevel Drug Abuse Resiliency Tool.” Best Practice In Mental Health12.1 (2016): 89-109. Academic Search Complete. Web. 25 Mar. 2016.

In the article “Substance Abuse Recovery among Homeless Adults in Atlanta, Georgia, and a Multilevel Drug Abuse Resiliency Tool” by Flanagan and Briggs, the authors describe homeless with addictions and try to give insight into the strain put on them when trying to escape their poverty. The writing first gives background into the nature of homelessness involving drug use and the stigma that is perpetuated by this. It is often looked down upon as a criminal act instead of a mental and clinical illness. By treating these individuals as criminals, they are forced into staying homeless. They have no opportunity to turn their life around, because they don’t have the resources to do so. In Atlanta, these conditions are consistently encountered. Atlanta has the seventh largest homeless population in the country, and it is fifth on the list when it comes to the chronically homeless. With this level of drug use and homelessness combined, there is an intense structural violence and sociological weight on the individuals. The authors describe this as “large-scale forces—ranging from gender inequality and racism to poverty”(Flanagan and Briggs). They also state the fact that to really help these people, each cause of their conditions has to be addressed individually. “Drug abuse is both a symptom and cause of homelessness that generally hinders homeless persons from making positive changes in their lives” (Flanagan and Briggs).

Marcil, Tiffany, et al. “Homeless Inmates Statistics For Orange County Corrections In Florida.” Corrections Today 78.1 (2016): 16-19. MasterFILE Elite. Web. 25 Mar. 2016.

In the article, “Homeless Inmates Statistics for Orange County Corrections in Florida”, the authors first describe the statistics behind homeless inmates in the Orange County system. They discovered that around ten percent of the inmates per a day were homeless. Of all the homeless in the county, around 24 percent were in the jails. There are almost no resources for these individuals once released so most are repeat offenders. In fact, “Close to 70 percent of youths in the juvenile justice system have a diagnosed mental health disorder, and approximately 30 percent suffer from a mental illness so severe it impairs their ability to function as a responsible adult” (Marcil, 24). The authors then describe The Value of Alternative Therapies In Mental Health Treatment for Incarcerated Youths. The importance being that this can prevent these kids from being in and out of homes or jails. Instead they have a chance to actually turn their lives in a different direction. It also saves the state a tremendous amount of money both short term and in the long run. Starting young can make a huge impact.

Reading Summary 6

The article “Color Walk” describes a tool that is made to change the average perspective on everyday beauty in nature and our surroundings. Bennin and McMullan, the authors of this writing, first mention William Burroughs. He was a novelist, teacher, artist, and dabbled in spoken word. He created an activity that wouldn’t take too long, and would hopefully change the outlooks of his students.he called it color walks. The goal was to go for a stroll around your area, and look for a specific color in your surroundings. By doing so, the participant would start to focus in on the red of a bike, or the different hues of blue around them.
The authors of this article took this a step forward by changing the rules. They allowed you to focus on a color that grabbed your attention, then move to a different color if it also did. These colors would transition from one object to the next, pulling the attention until something even more vibrant came along. This is much easier to say than do. While writing this I tried to focus on the task, but kept getting distracted by my own thoughts. Eventually, I started to try less and succeed more.That’s when I noticed that once you started getting into the groove of looking at a color, and focusing on its contrast to the objects around it, it become very easy, and almost meditative. It reminded me of the new trend of adult coloring books. It was relaxing and changed the way I viewed our world.
Even after the activity is over, the authors noticed that the colors still hung in their brains and their minds. They felt different, maybe more perceptive. Even more, their view of Macroscopic view changed to focus on the little things. Maybe they had been missing it all along.

Topgolf, Midtown

For my internal built environment, I chose Topgolf, Midtown. Although it was not on the list for internal built environments, I was encouraged to choose it because of the fun that I have with my friends there and the fact that I work there. In my option, it is a much cooler place to observe than a coffee shop, museum, and market. Over the course of the past few weeks, I have spent a hours exploring and observing Topgolf from the perspective of a guest rather than an employee.

With an area as large, diverse, and captivating as Topgolf, one image could not fully show its greatness. Thus, I collected various digital records to show its best attributes. The records represent the attraction well because they show almost all that Topgolf has to offer. Topgolf is located at 1600 Ellsworth Industrial Boulevard, which less than a ten minute drive from my apartment and the Georgia State campus. When I first moved downtown, over the summer, Topgolf was not yet opened and still in the process of hiring people. At the time, I was unaware of what exactly Topgolf was and had no interest in working there. My roommate, however, did and got the job and kept insisting that I come golf with him. After one time I was hooked, which is why I felt that I should observe it as my internal built environment.

My digital records included a picture of the outside of the building, my bay reservation, the full bar, the lounge area, the target goals, and a video of my friend Alyssa demonstrating how the golfing works. The outside of the building is illuminated with bright blue lights that can be seen from down the street, which draw people in. In order to get a bay, which is where people golf, I had to make a reservation. I wound up on the second floor at bay 25; it was labeled “225”. While people are waiting on their bays or just hanging out, they can go to the bar or the first floor lounge. The bar is also illuminated with bright blue lights and is fully stocked. The lounge has pool tables and video games that people of all ages enjoy.

In my time observing Topgolf, I spent most of the evening at a bay with my friend Alyssa. I taught her how to swing the golf club and the goal of the game that wanted to play. We played a game called “Top Score”. To get a ball, she just had to wave her foot or the club over a sensor and a ball would be dispensed. With her blue women’s clubs, she hit the ball off of the platform and into a target in the outfield. For the game “Top Score”, we received points based on how many yards the ball went. The computer at our bay knew who got what points because of a computer chip in the ball and in the goals that matches our bay. The technology is so cool.

Topgolf was so much fun to observe. Alyssa and I ordered dinner and dessert from our bay, toured the building (even though I’d seen if before as an employee), and watched the different groups of people enjoy their time there too. The various groups of people ranges from families, to dates, and even to a Delta group that rented out an area. Some people are genuine golfers, while others are amateurs (such as myself), but regardless of the person, age or gender, everyone can come and enjoy themselves. Although I typically spend roughly 30 hours a week at Topgolf, it was amazing getting to see the place from a new perspective. It was so lively and entertaining.

Reading Summary 5

Summary of  “Better Online Living Through Content Moderation” by Melissa King

Melissa King’s article called “Better Online Living Through Content Moderation” discussed the various anti-content controls and rhetoric strategies that harass. She talks about the content control features, such as being able to block and ignore certain posts. A major problem concerning the content control features is the stigma associates with wanting those functions. Many of those users are labeled as overly sensitive or weak for wanting to take control of their social media. In some cases, the anxiety and threats online have invoked episodes of PTSD for people. King’s article is broken into three categories that go into further depth of the problem.

The first category is titled “ Computer-Chair Psychology” and it began by highlighting one of the major arguments. That argument is “that’s people blow the abuse and harassment they receive out of proportion” and they should be less sensitive (King). A comparison between Exposure Therapy, which slowly exposes people to what triggers their anxiety, to the content being shown to them on the internet. The problem with that comparison is that with exposure therapy, their exposure is limited and controlled, while what pops up on the Internet is not. King discusses the real safety threat associated with uncontrolled online harassment. In fact, “long -term exposure to threatening situations, such as online harassment, is one of the major causes of PTSD”(King).

The second category of King’s article is titled “Threating Legal Recourse”. In that section King discusses the increase in blocklists in response to hate groups such as Gamergate, TERFs, MRA/PUAs, and white supremacists. Legal action is identified as one of the major way in which people are fighting blocklists. In order to use a block list, King says that one must find one that suits their needs, subscribe to it, and install an app. Some people have claimed that the act of blocking people is equal to the act of harassment. King believes that this makes blocklists bad “because it means subjecting one’s Internet experience to the whims of another” (King). What King acknowledges that the arguments fail to recognize is how “vicious and pervasive” the harassments can be. Some, such as Gamergate, threatens people’s families, calls them, and posts pictures of their homes and addresses in order to keep them quiet.

The third and final category is titles “Towards More Personal Agency Over Online Experiences” discusses the ways in which hate mobs threaten and stalk people, which is blatantly illegal. King believes that people should be able to block people who attempt to assault them. The people who have spoken out the most against the block features are those who have not been targeted or abused. King discusses how people should not be called cowards or defamed for wanting to protect themselves. She concludes by talking about how a “one-size-fits-all” approach ignores the fact that all people are not the same and each person has their own psyche and experiences that shape how the Internet affects them. Thus, people should be allowed to control their Internet content without being shamed further abused.

Similarly to King, I believe that part of freedom is being able to control the aspects of your life. If at any people the pop-ups or people on the Internet are making you feel unsafe, you reserve the right to make changes for yourself without being condemned. I also believe that there is something seriously wrong with the fact that people are getting away with being able to stalk and harass people without being prosecuted; it is illegal and should be treated as such.

Lounge at Topgolf



This is the lounge at Topgolf. It is located on the first floor and have three large tvs with Xbox 360s connected to each one for wireless gaming. There are also two pool tables and several tables for people to order food at and wait on their bays to be ready.

Golfing at Topgolf


This is my friend Alyssa. I asked her to come with me and be my demonstration for how this golfing actually works. A ball came out of the box in front of her onto the green golf mat. Then she put it on the white tee. I showed her how to hit the ball into the target since she had never golfed before. She hit the ball off of the mat and out into the arena. From there, it landed in a goal and she reviewed points.