According to Schindler, Architects with the help of legal scholars created architectures called built environments strictly to keep in a lower income citizens and predominantly black people from having access to places where the wealthy whites did not want them.

Schindler believed that architecture has been overlooked by the law and should have been considered a form of regulation.  Architecture controls how a person reacts and treats a certain environment. Ever notice the more you drive out the inner city into more suburban areas there are less and less sidewalks and crosswalks for pedestrians. These kinds of things a send an unspoken message to people that’s from different areas. Legal scholars and architects know they can regulate human’s behavior by infrastructures. The smallest changes in a environment can have a big impact on a certain group even if they don’t live in that area. Architectural exclusion law makers do not feel as though they are a big deal. So therefore they do not try to consider the effects they can cause.

She states there are many methods of exclusions. The first way was to exclude the poor and blacks from certain area was to make it difficult to get there. For example, Robert Moses’ Long Island bridges. He constructed the bridges in such a way so  that public transit such as, buses could not get through to take low income citizens, mostly African American to the Jones Beach.

The second way was the way public transit and transportation was designed throughout a city. Not having a bus stop in certain areas (suburban areas) was just to simply keep certain people of low social and economic status from getting access to the upper class communities. The process that the wealthy took was to lobby their elected decision makers to not bring the bus stops in. A result of those kind of transit-sitting decision-making was that the “unwanted guests’ could not access the suburban areas and the job opportunities that they held. The lack of transit is a direct way to keep out certain groups of people.

Bridge exits and highway ramps were often made to steer people away of wealthier neighborhoods. The location of newly built highway were too often placed to make black lives difficult. The highway were sometimes built through black communities which forced them to move elsewhere. Most likely far away from the wealthier communities. One way streets and confusing directional signs were used to separate the lower income citizens from higher income citizens and also to make sure to keep away the unwanted and new citizens who didn’t belong out.

The last exclusion design were residential parking permits. Those permits only allowed the people who lived there and their guests to have access to certain residents. So if you didn’t have a permit you were not allowed to enter.

As you can the upper class, legislators and also the architects went through a lot to make the lower class lives’ difficult. They used built environments to get what they wanted which was to keep their communities segregated without breaking laws.

In closing, Schindler believe that architectural exclusions get overlooked by legal scholars and also the people that live in these environments. It takes a lot to prove how and why someone built something or signed off on a law so that’s how they get overlooked.