Perspective


“Of all species of animals, the argument goes, humans are unique in that they occupy what Richard Shweder (1990:2) calls ‘intentional worlds‘. For the inhabitants of such a world, things do not exist ‘in themselves’, as indifferent objects, but only as they are given form or meaning within systems of mental representations. Thus to individuals who belong to different intentional worlds, the same objects in the same physical surroundings may mean quite different things” (Ingold, 41).

Overall Ingold’s main focus was describing how nature is a ‘cultural construction’ and the                   associations vary across cultures. When we observe things we see through a certain perspective         that has been ingrained in us by our culture and regional location. There is a Western perspective     in the United States, which makes us judge things according to what we believe to be the correct option.

 


 Listen to “The Wonders of the Rainbow Snake” 

Through their artwork, creation myths, and beliefs related to the rainbow serpent we will learn how snakes can be understood in a completely different way from our own culture. To aboriginals the rainbow serpent plays an integral part to their socio-religious ways of life.


For example, what are snakes to us? Some people have them as pets, we see them in zoos, and only   a small amount of churches conduct prayer adoration with snakes. We see Aztec traditions as being odd because how can they adore/venerate a snake? But who is to say what perspective is the right  perspective? Indigenous people could look at us and wonder why we have a god (snake) as a pet or locked away in a zoo.

Part I, Biology:

Believe it or not science has a lot to do with religion. For example, in Aztec religions during certain rituals animals are used as sacrifice. First we have to know how are animals classified? What characteristics are taken into account when classifying animals? This classification will be examined more closely in the next section. Many animals are venerated due to the characteristics they possess but in order to understand this some biological background over the animal is necessary. For reference we will look at the snake. A snake in religion is associated with life and rejuvenation, why? Because snakes are able to shed their skin. Their ability to see everything due to not blinking, associates them as excellent guards. Their ability to move rapidly due to their composition shows that they are very agile.

 


Listen to “Snake Cast”

Jon: They were first recognized for their wisdom.

Insha: And how is that?

Jon: Firstly, they seemed like the only animal that had mastered the art of eternal

youth, which for humans is an unattainable skill. But I think it must have something

to do with their focused, never blinking eyes. They have been watching everything,

recording everything their whole lives. Every so often, they shed they old skin and

emerge as youthful as before, ready to continue the recording process.

They never have to worry about missing something within the blink of an eye, yet

within the blink of our eyes, they can just disappear.


Part II, Folkbiology:

  • Across countries animals are referred to with names that someone might not understand. Let’s take the

    Python Snake in Zoo Atlanta.

    snake for example in Spanish it’s culebra, in Italian serpente, and so on. While some translations are easier to understand, the name does not always translate as easily. That is where science enters the picture by introducing the binomial nomenclature. Although it is not used in everyday language, the binomial nomenclature makes it easier for people to communicate across cultures. Common snakes such as snake make it easy for everyday people to communicate. However, the binomial nomenclature (2 names compiled of the first name indicating the genus and the second indicating the epithet, and are usually in Latin) allows scientists to communicate because they are able to refer to the same animal. While science allows us to communicate cross culturally because it has its own form of communication, it leaves behind meaning specific to a culture. “People’s actions on the natural world are surely conditioned in part by their ways of knowing and modeling it,” (Atran, 1).


Ex. Coatl→ snake

Quezalcoatl→ feathered serpent

Coatlique→ serpent skirt

 

These are the names for some most important deities in Aztec traditions. The names are specifically given depending on the characteristics they posses, so that they serve a descriptive purpose as well.

 

In science, it does not work like this. Names are given to animals so that someone in China could communicate with someone in the U.S. and be able to talk about the same animal.

 

Ex. Garter snake→ Thamnophis sirtalis

This name mainly serves to describe the appearance of the snake. So what is lost in translation is power or special qualities attributed to it.


Listen to “The Wonders of The Rainbow Snake”

Through their artwork, creation myths, and beliefs related to the rainbow serpent we will learn how snakes can be understood in a completely different way from our own culture. To aboriginals the rainbow serpent plays an integral part to their socio-religious ways of life.


Part III, Religions:

Ganesh statue in Carlos Museum at Emory University.

Religion is definitely associated with cultures. Certain regions have specific religions. Religion gives people a different perspective and view points on which they evaluate things.

For example, in a Christian setting a fish represents Jesus. Bread and wine is not just bread and wine, but the literal body and blood of Christ.

A snake in Aztec traditions represents way more than just an animal. It represents deities, gods, rebirth, the cycle of life, etc. As oppose to Western traditions where the snake might not be observed spiritually.

Views differ a lot based on the concept of animals. Where do animals fall? Should humans and animals be grouped together? Are they two completely different species? This is very hard because many see humans as superior. Superior because of the way they are able to communicate and interact. Humans have evolved and possess what is known as ‘extended consciousness’ in which “the individual has a clear sense of “me” and “you,” of “yesterday” and “tomorrow,” of “when I was a child” and “when I was a child” and “when I’m old”” (Fisher).  This ability to differentiate is what sets humans apart from animals. While many see humans as becoming less of an animal as time goes on, Amazonian people see it differently. “For Amazonian peoples, the original common condition of both humans and animals is not animalist but rather, humanity” (Vivieros de Castro, 465).

In Exchanging Perspectives: The Transformation of Objects into Subjects In Amerindian Ontologies, Vivieros de Castro discusses that it is not humans that have lost their animalistic qualities but rather animal retracting from their humanism. This is why animals are so important indigenous religions because they focus on the soul of the object instead. “The soul is formally identical in all species, it can only perceive the same things everywhere. The difference is given in the specificity of bodies” (Vivieros de Castro, 474). Therefore, animals are seen just as important as humans because they believe that they possess a similar soul that is simply instilled a different body. As you can see it is all just a matter as perspective. Some people see animals as inferior to humans while others consider them equally.

 

In cosmologies it is actually believed that objects and artifacts exited first and that they were responsible for the creation of the world. For example, in the Wakuénai cosmology the first humans and god are believed to be made of sacred flutes & trumpets. In the Tukano cosmology God existed first along with artifacts. In cosmologies “corporeal organization of species” usually exist which means that “each species [was] fabricated from the bodies and body parts of other natural species” (Santos-Granero, 6). This is a different kind of creation story then the one that people are use to. In this one the perspective of God created the world from nothing shifts to rather him shaping the world from objects that already existed.


As can be observed, the perspective one takes on things can have a huge effect on how they view things. The perspective each person has is unique and is based on things such as: location, morals, belief systems, etc.

 


Works Cited

Atran, Scott. “Folk Biology,” in MITECS: The MIT Encyclopedia of Cognitive Science.

 

“Common Garter Snake.” Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 13 Apr. 2017. Web. 24 Apr. 2017.

 

Crouch, Ceallsach, Gayle Kruger, Alyson Francis, and Remy Liverman. “The Wonders of the

Rainbow Snake.” Audio blog post. Rels 4700/6700. Soundcloud, 10 Apr. 2017. Web. 19 Apr. 2017.

 

DeMello, Margo. “Animals in Religion and Folklore” in Animals and Society: An Introduction

to Human-animal Studies. New York: Columbia University Press, 2012. 301-321.

 

Fisher, Helen. “2015 : WHAT DO YOU THINK ABOUT MACHINES THAT

THINK?” Edge.org. Edge, 01 Jan. 1970. Web. 24 Apr. 2017.

 

Ingold, Tim. “Hunting and Gathering as Ways of Perceiving the Environment,” in The Perception of the

Environment: Essays on Livelihood, Dwelling and Skill. New York:

Routledge, 2000. 40-60.

 

Ramirez, Nancy, Jonathan Harkey, and Insha Qari. “Snake Cast.” Audio blog post. Rels

4700/6700. Soundcloud, 10 Apr. 2017. Web. 22 Apr. 2017.

 

Santos-Granero, Fernando. “Introduction: Amerindian Constructional Views of the World” in

The Occult Life of Things: Native Amazonian Theories of Materiality and Personhood. Tucson: The University

of Arizona Pres, 2009. 3-29.

 

Vivieros de Castro, Eduardo. “Exchanging Perspectives: The Transformation of Objects into

Subjects in Amerindian Ontologies.” Common Knowledge. 10, no. 3. (2004) Durham:

Duke University Press. 463-484.

 

 

 

38 Responses

  1. Mukesh Kumar Panda at |

    Thanks for the post. Here I have found an interesting article about How to Take Care of Your Health While Moving. Health is an essential part of our day to day life. During the relocation time, many people become sick due to excess stress. So check out the article. https://www.gudstory.com/how-to-take-care-of-your-health-while-moving/

    Reply
    1. قیمت میلگرد بستر at |

      برای مشاهد قیمت میلگرد بستر

      Reply
    2. قیمت میلگرد بستر at |

      برای تهیه میلگرد بستر مراحل طولانی سپری می شود .مراحلی چون تهیه مواد خام برای میلگرد بستر. کشش میلگرد بستر . برش میلگرد بستر و مراحل خم کاری و جوش میلگرد بستر و در آخر آب کاری میلگرد بستر تمامی این هزینه ها در قیمت میلگرد بستر
      موثر است.و تمامی قیمت های میلگرد بستر به این عوامل ارتباط مستقیم دارند .تلاش ما این است با استفاده از تیم مجرب با کم ترین هزینه و بهترین کیفیت میلگرد بستر را عرضه و تولید کنیم.

      Reply
  2. mywatchzone at |

    Thank you for sharing your thoughts. Stuff that are really cool.
    https://mywatchzone.com/

    Reply
  3. Joseph Smith at |

    Thank you for sharing and discussing your thoughts. Our mission at Home Care Assistance is to change the way the world ages.
    https://homecareassistancecsprings.com

    Reply
  4. guest at |

    read
    در سال‌هاي اخير، استفاده از شيشه‌ دوجداره در نماي ساختمان و دکوراسيون‌هاي داخلي بسيار مورد توجه طراحان و معماران قرار داشته است. شيشه‌ها مي توانند علاوه بر تامين کردن نور محيط، باعث ارتباط بصري داخل ساختمان با محيط بيروني شوند، به همين شیشه دوجداره بدون گاز دليل از جايگاه ويژه‌اي برخوردارند. رنگ‌هاي گوناگوني از شيشه‌ها در بازار وجود دارد و به همين خاطر شيشه هاي دوجداره نيز مانند شيشه‌هاي معمولي در رنگ هاي مختلفي توليد مي‌شوند.

    Reply
  5. آسرون at |

    کارخانه فولاد آذربایجان، از تولیدکنندگان میلگرد با کیفیت در ایران است. این واحد صنعتی با نام کارخانه فولاد میانه آذربایجان هم شناخته می‌شود و میلگردهای آن در بازار، به میلگرد میانه مشهور است. وزن میلگرد میانه مشابه وزن میلگرد اصفهان است؛ اما قیمت میلگرد میانه، معمولاً ارزان‌تر است. میلگرد میانه، از ارزان قیمت ترین میلگردهای موجود در بازار است.

    Reply
  6. Julia at |

    A place where you can comfortably confide, eliminate fatigue in study or work. Free game on any smartphone, laptop, PC. cookie clicker unblocked free

    Reply
  7. hana mark at |

    Thank you for sharing your thoughts. Stuff that are really cool.https://snowrider3d.com

    Reply
  8. bridesmaid dresses at |

    As close as you can get in the runway shows (Seriously—the poufy dresses always brush over the feet!) it had been insanely cool to become just inches all the gorgeous. And unlike wedding gowns being worn by models, these didn’t attempt to get away from us!

    SO fun!

    Reply
  9. Packers And Movers Bangalore at |

    Best Packers And Movers Bangalore: Reliable, Professional And Verified Household Shifting Service Providers In Bangalore At Reasonable Charges, Get Estimates Now To Save Upto 20% For Local And Domestic House Shifting With Rating And Reviews – @ https://packersmoversbangalore.in/

    Reply
  10. Packers and Movers Chennai at |

    Packers and Movers Chennai Give Safe and Reliable ***Household Shifting Services in Chennai with Reasonable ###Packers and Movers Price Quotation. We Provide Household Shifting, Office Relocation, ✔✔✔ Local and Domestic Transportation Services, Affordable and Reliable Shifting Service Charges @ Packers And Movers Chennai

    Reply
  11. Packers and Movers Hyderabad at |

    Packers and Movers Hyderabad are ✔✔✔ Certified Service Providers for Affordable Household Shifting. ***Get Instant Quotes and Compare ###Save Time- @ Packers And Movers Hyderabad

    Reply
  12. Anand Ray at |

    You should visit Tones Mp3 if you wanted to be entertained.

    Reply
  13. گل بچبن at |
    Reply
  14. گل بچین at |
    Reply
  15. rebar at |

    میلگرد بستر از سیم های فولادی در ضخامت های چهار میلی متری تولید می شوند. محصول مذکور حالتی آج دار داشته تا بتواند بهتر با بتن یا ملات تماس برقرار نماید. با توجه به اینکه فولاد به مرور زمان در مجاورت رطوبت محیط، دچار فرسایش می شود پوششی از جنس روی سطوح محصول را فرار می گیرد این قابلیت ضد زنگ موجب افزایش طول عمر قیمت میلگرد بستر و جلوگیری از فرسایش زود هنگام شده در نتیجه کیفیت محصول نهایی ارتقاء می یابد.

    Reply
  16. gosolai at |

    I really like reading through a post that can make people think. Also, many thanks for permitting me to comment! spanish dictionary

    Reply
  17. Best Private University at |

    Good writing technique. Can I share this article?

    Reply
  18. Packers And Movers Bangalore at |

    Packers and Movers Bangalore – Reliable and Verified Household Shifting Service Providers Give Reasonable ###Packers and Movers Charges. Cheap and Best Office Relocation Compare Quotation – @https://Packers-and-Movers-Bangalore.in/

    Reply
  19. venus at |
    Reply
  20. Edwin at |

    This perspective is ok, Edwin

    Reply
  21. corecrack at |

    AOMEI Partition Assistant Keygen also includes three Wizards for everyday tasks: Extend Partition, Disk Copy, and Partition Copy. The AOMEI Partition Assistant Free Download Copy Wizard allowed us to choose between Quick Copy, which copies just the utilized space, and Sector-by-Sector, which replicates the complete partition structure to a new drive AOMEI Partition Assistant Crack.

    Reply
  22. Jason Cooper at |

    Nice information you share with us. I like Part III, Religions very much. Thank you. Keep it up. All 26 English letters from A to Z can be encoded using a Morse code chart. Standardised patterns of dots and dashes are created using English letters. Use the Morse Code learning techniques outlined in this blog. Visit – http://morsecoder.bravesites.com/entries/general/telegraph-and-american-morse-code-inventor—samuel-morse

    Reply
    1. vahdat at |

      انواع سوزن
      از سوزن برای اتصال چرم، پارچه و … و همچنین انجام کارهای هنری و تزئین اجسام مانند گلدوزی، ربان دوزی و… استفاده می شود. سوزن یکی از ملزومات دوخت بوده سوزن خیاطی و در واقع بدون آن نمی توان هیچ گونه دوختی انجام داد. برای خرید سوزن کافی است به خرازی مراجعه کرده و کاربرد سوزن مورد نظر خود را بگویید به عنوان مثال به فروشنده بگویید که سوزن مخصوص گلدوزی می خواهید.

      Reply
  23. Bobby Carroll at |

    Thank you for sharing information on Biology, Folkbiology, and Religions. Informative content. Keep it up. I am waiting for your next post. In general, modern PCs should automatically determine the best, highest refresh rate for each monitor you attach. You might occasionally need to manually change the refresh rate because this does not always occur automatically. In this article, I am sharing information about refresh rate and 3 ways to check refresh rate Of Your Phone, Tablet, Or Laptop.

    Reply
  24. Rowena Davies at |

    As a normal person, I like to have fun with video games. And having tried various games, I can say that the purchased ones are worth the money. Because the developers spend a lot of time and effort to make the perfect game and render the most detailed graphics. Try poppy playtime and you’ll see what I mean.

    Reply
  25. قیمت میلگرد بستر at |

    برای مشاهد قیمت میلگرد بستر

    Reply
  26. میلگرد بستر at |

    برای مشاهد قیمت میلگرد بستر

    Reply
  27. io games at |

    Thank you for providing this interesting and very interesting topic. I will update your next post often. io games

    Reply
  28. bonbet at |

    کالورت درواقع سازه‌ای شبیه تونل است که از آن در زیر معابر یا راه آهن استفاده می‌شود. کاربرد این سازه هدایت آب‌های روان و یا آب‌هایی است که از بالادست به سمت پایین جریان دارد به طور معمول از یک طرف جاده به طرف دیگر استفاده می‌شود؛ و شکل

    دهانه آن‌ها به صورت مقطع شکل، گرد یا بیضوی شکل هستند و اغلب از پیش ساخته هستند. کالورت بتنی پیش ساخته کالورت های بتنی ازنظر

    ظاهری ساده اما به لحاظ ساختار بسیار پیچیده هستند و اجزای مهم واصلی از بزرگراه‌ها را تشکیل می‌دهند.

    Reply
  29. bonbet at |

    Thank you for providing this interesting and very interesting topic
    کالورت درواقع سازه‌ای شبیه تونل است که از آن در زیر معابر یا راه آهن استفاده می‌شود. کاربرد این سازه هدایت آب‌های روان و یا آب‌هایی است که از بالادست به سمت پایین جریان دارد به طور معمول از یک طرف جاده به طرف دیگر استفاده می‌شود؛ و شکل دهانه آن‌ها به صورت مقطع شکل، گرد یا بیضوی شکل هستند و اغلب از پیش ساخته هستند. کالورت بتنی پیش ساخته کالورت های بتنی ازنظر ظاهری ساده اما به لحاظ ساختار بسیار پیچیده هستند و اجزای مهم واصلی از بزرگراه‌ها را تشکیل می‌دهند.
    Thank you for providing this interesting and very interesting topic

    Reply
  30. Chicago moving company at |

    is really informative for me. I liked it very much.
    apartment movers Chicago

    Reply
  31. moving company at |

    this interesting and very interesting topic.
    local movers

    Reply
  32. King David at |

    I really like reading through a post that can make people think. Also, many thanks for permitting me to comment.
    furniture movers

    Reply
  33. drtinafaar at |

    مشاوره قبل از ازدواج نوعی از زوج درمانی است که با تعیین انتظارات واقع بینانه، بهبود ارتباطات و کار بر روی حل تعارض به دو طرف ازدواج کمک می کند قبل از شروع ازدواج سالم تری داشته باشند. مشاوره قبل از ازدواج آنلاین به موضوعاتی مانند امور مالی، و تمایلات جنسی، خانواده اصلی، نقاط قوت و مسائل، باورهای معنوی و ارزش‌ها می‌پردازد.

    Reply
  34. visaaaa at |

    انواع ویزا از نظر نحوه اقدام کردن
    مراجعه مستقیم به سفارت، پر کردن فرم های ویزا و درخواست ویزا
    انجام مراحل درخواست ویزا از طریق آژانس ها و شرکت های واسطه. ویزای اکثر کشورها رو میشه از هر دو روش اول و دوم انجام داد. معدود کشورهایی مثل سنگاپور و امارات هستند که فقط از روش دوم میشه اقدام کرد. بعضی از کشورها مثل چین و روسیه هم مراجعه مستقیم به سفارت به قدری دردسر داره که نهایتا به نظر میرسه مراجعه به آژانس در زمان و هزینه میتونه صرفه جویی کنه.تعداد محدودی کشور هم هستند که کلیه مراحل درخواست ویزا فقط آنلاین هست. ویزای کشورهای استرالیا و نیوزلند به اینصورت هست. چگونه ویزای کار آلمان بگیریم ویزای استرالیا یک نکته جالب دیگه هم داره و اینکه هیچ برچسبی توی پاسپورت شما زده نمیشه. ویزای استرالیا یک فایل پی دی اف هست که به شما ایمیل میشه.برای کشورهای تاجیکستان و آذربایجان از هر سه روش بالا میشه برای ویزا اقدام کرد.

    Reply
  35. مدرن پانل at |
    Reply

Leave a Reply

Skip to toolbar