Alcoholism is a growing public health concern among women. Physical, psychological, and social effects of alcohol differ among women and men and present challenges when considering diagnosis, treatment, and prevention2. According to the CDC, gender differences such as body structure and brain chemistry can cause women to absorb more alcohol and take longer to remove, or metabolize, from their system. If women and men were to drink the same amount of alcohol, women would be more impacted and as a result would have detrimental effects from the alcohol quicker than men. Women who misuse alcohol are more likely to experience psycho-sexual dysfunction, anxiety, shame, low self-esteem, and bulimia than women who do not misuse alcohol1. The negative emotion of shame and guilt is experienced more by women than men and can affect treatment1. In 2013, 40% of White women, over 10% of Hispanic women, and less than 10% of African American women were found to binge drink, which for women is considered as 4 or more drinks in a 2 hour time-period.
What are the risks…
- Breast cancer
- Unintentional injuries (car crashes, falls, burns)
- Alcohol use disorders
- Chronic diseases
- Sexually transmitted diseases
- Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD)
- Adverse pregnancy outcomes
- Liver disease
What are the treatment options…
As new generations experience acclimation to social, economic, and cultural characteristics, the gender gap in drinking behaviors has become less significant2. This can be due to several factors including a decline in impact on known psycho-socio-cultural factors and the consequences of alcohol-related disorders. It’s important to note that these factors have an influence on alcohol use and can be used to determine effective treatments.
Other treatments include motivational enhancement, cognitive behavioral therapy, brief therapy, and Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and can be women-only based. Studies have shown that women prefer treatment geared towards their specific needs in relation to low self-esteem, poor self-image, self-harm, and depression, instead of an overall therapy1. Drinking behaviors related to cultural perceptions, social drinking patterns, and private rituals are considered when treating alcohol misuse4. Even among a pandemic, there are programs that have switched to online group sessions to help those in need through professionally led discussions, support groups, and video counselling.
What can be done to reduce this global concern…
What options are there for reducing harmful alcohol consumption? The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends three “best buys” which consists of enforcing bans on alcohol advertisement, restricting alcohol access, and increasing alcohol taxes. These strategies have the greatest potential for improving public health, along with formulating and implementing policies that reduce alcohol consumption.
With the global pandemic, we have seen an increased number of alcohol advertises on social media, TV ads, and the internet. They have different catch phrases but are all coaxing the audience to buy their product. Some businesses even advertise the fact that they deliver pre-made to-go alcoholic drinks. Earlier this month, almost three-quarters of alcohol ads (71%) referenced the COVID-19 pandemic, while two-thirds (66%) had a coupon/offer button that linked directly to the businesses online store.
Enforcing alcohol policies and reducing exposure to alcohol marketing can decrease alcohol consumption, not just in the United States but globally. Some countries have a reduced or weak alcohol regulatory system which provides opportunity for corporations and alcoholic industries to market their product3. Other high-income countries use creative techniques to target women drinkers using fruity or fun beverages, or “healthier” beverages for the health-conscious drinkers3.
Overall, the three recommendations by the WHO should have the most promising lead for enhancing the regulation of excessive alcohol consumption. Leaders, countries, and organizations should band together to implement alcoholic policies and improve the public health infrastructure. Unfortunately, with a global pandemic, it will be harder to enforce the recommendations.
 Angove, R., Fothergill, A. 2003. Women and alcohol: misrepresented and misunderstood. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing. 10, 213-219.
 Erol, A., Karpyak, V.M. 2015. Sex and gender-related differences in alcohol use and its consequences: Contemporary knowledge and future research considerations. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 156, 1-13.
 Esser, M.B., Jernigan, D.H. 2018. Policy Approaches for Regulating Alcohol Marketing in a Global Context: A Public Health Perspective. Annual Review of Public Health. 39, 385-401.
 McCrady, B.S., Epstein, E.E., Cook, S, Jensen, N.K., Ladd, B.O. 2011. What do women want? Alcohol treatment choices, treatment entry and retention. Psychol Addict Behav. 25, 521-529.