Harris, Dianne. “Clean and Bright and Everyone White.” In Sites Unseen: Landscape and Vision. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2007. Print.

Written by Dianne Harris, “Clean and Bright and Everyone White” is about how the representation of the 1950s features mostly whites, where and how they lived. This representation was purposeful, just as houses of the time were purposely built in neighborhoods often too expensive for people of color, and painted with bright, pastel colors. Magazines that published picturesque homes owned by white, middle class families left others feeling inadequate and wanting to somehow become a part of this “American dream.” While different from the architectural exclusion present in Atlanta, this source shows that architectural exclusion has existed in the U.S. for decades and is not a new subject. This source is useful because it forces readers to take a step back and look at architectural exclusion with a broader perspective. However, this source does not mention any oppositions to the theory of exclusion in the built environment and can be considered bias. Architectural exclusion is the common idea in all my sources for this project. Harris mentions a form of exclusion that was noticed but, ignored. While my other sources mention more current ideas of architectural exclusion that are still happening.





Alcindor, Yamiche. “Cities’ Homeless Crackdown: Could It Be Compassion Fatigue?” USA Today. USA Today, 10 June 2012. Web. 3 Feb. 2016.

In the post “Cities’ homeless crackdown: Could it be compassion fatigue?” written by Yamiche Alcindor the well-known topic of homeless in urban environments is brought to attention. Cities have taken to passing laws that inevitably exclude the homeless from certain areas. With already existing forms of architectural exclusion (such as arm rests separating park benches), the homeless face enough exclusion put into place by cities. With the addition of bans on camping and sharing of food in public places, the homeless are further pushed to the fringes of society and isolated. Alcindor mentions cities that are passing these laws, naming Atlanta as one of them. With such a large population of homeless people, the city seems to be doing more to exclude the homeless instead of helping them. This sources showcases the exclusion from architecture created by laws that is common to people who do not have homes. This is an issue that someone residing in Atlanta will more clearly be able to see. However, when viewing this source the reader should take into consideration that this post has not been updated within the last three years, and so the reader cannot determine from this source the most current laws regarding this type of exclusion. Tying into my other sources, this post offers a different take on architectural exclusion and how it may be brought upon by factors other than the design of spaces.





Davis, Mason. “Transgender People Need Safe Restrooms.” HuffPost Queer Voices. The Huffington Post, 24 June 2013. Web. 3 Feb. 2016.

In “Transgender People Need Safe Restrooms,” Masen Davis brings up the issue of restrooms for Transgender people. Something as simple as going to the restroom in a public place leaves Transgenders exposed to a form of brutality that most non-transgender people do not face. Some transgender people go as far as to avoid using the restroom (which causes health problems) and going out in public at all. This blog post is relevant to my project because many restrooms are uninviting to those who do not fit into the typical gender categories and are a form of architectural exclusion. Being such a large urban environment, Atlanta would be expected to have a well-known community of Transgender people. However, very few restrooms in common public places (such as the Georgia State University) have restrooms that are gender neutral. This form of architectural exclusion is one that is overlooked in many ways. Even if the restrooms were originally designed to separate men and women, not much is being done to fix the problem (its exclusion of Transgender people). This source gives detailed information on ways in which Transgender people are affected and actions that can be taken to better accommodate everyone. Unfortunately, the source does give much mention to places that have taken reformative actions and merely states there is an existing app that can be used to locate restrooms usable by everyone. Masen Davis mentions important points of architectural exclusion that tie in well with other sources that are also about ways in which communities exclude groups of people (whether they pay attention to this type of segregation or not).





Hart, Ariel, and Laurel Paget-Seekins. “City On The Move: What’s Next For Atlanta’s Transportation Systems?.” Planning 80.1 (2014) : 36-41. Avery Index to Architectural Periodicals. Web. 22 Feb. 2016.

“Transportation and Equality” by Laurel Paget-Seekins is about how, because of the lacking transportation, children in Atlanta struggle to escape poverty more than children in other regions of the country. With little access to public transportation, children/people have less access to better schools, betters jobs, etc. This article is helpful in giving another view on the effects on poor transportation. I chose this source because it relates to my other sources and differs enough to add substantial information to my project on architectural exclusion. Though transportation is something mentioned in some of my other sources, the evidence I have drawn from this source will allow me to appeal to a greater and more diverse audience.





Lawler, Kathryn, and Cathie Berger. “Lifelong Communities: Re-Imagining The Atlanta Region From The Ground Up.” Generations 33.2 (2009) : 76-78. AgeLine. Web. 22 Feb. 2016.

The article “Lifelong Communities: Re-Imagining the Atlanta Region from the Ground up” is about the struggle older citizens of the Atlanta region face and how this can be addressed. The article mentions the issue of transportation access. Older citizens may not feel as comfortable driving as those that are younger, however the lack of proper transportation forces them to drive or miss out on things such as doctor visits. These citizens are being excluded from areas that cannot be reached by public transportation. This article gives mention to ways in which communities can be improved for older citizens. The evidence I have drawn from the source has specifically to do with transportation and the way in which it reflects architectural exclusion. Though this source is useful, it only gives mention of the effect this form of architectural exclusion has on older citizens, rather than the residents of Atlanta relying on public transportation as a whole. This source, like my others, relates to architectural exclusion. However, this particular article offers a different view than the others I have found.





Lucy A. Peipins, Shannon Graham, Randall Young, Brian Lewis, Barry Flanagan. ” Racial disparities in travel time to radiotherapy facilities in the Atlanta metropolitan area.” Social Science & Medicine 89 (2013) : 32-38. ScienceDirect. Web. 22 Feb. 2016.

“Racial disparities in time travel to radiotherapy facilities in the Atlanta metropolitan area” (by Lucy Peipins, Shannon Graham, Randall Young, Brian Lewis, and Barry Flanagan) is about the challenge women with breast cancer face when relying on public transportation. Women who rely on public transportation are less likely to start or complete their radiotherapy. I chose this source because of its detailed analysis of transportation. Though not about buildings and such, this source offers a look at architectural exclusion in the form of poor transportation. Since the quality of transportation is low, these women in need of radiotherapy cannot get around and often run the risk of serious health issues. Although this source is useful in its presentation of architectural exclusion, the source can be hard to follow as it is meant for a specific audience. This, however, does not take away from the sources relation to my other sources and relevance to my project topic.





Lucy A. Peipins, Shannon Graham, Randall Young, Brian Lewis, Stephanie Foster, Barry Flanagan, Andrew Dent. “Time And Distance Barriers To Mammography Facilities In The Atlanta Metropolitan Area.” Journal Of Community Health 36.4 (2011): 675-683. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 21 Mar. 2016.

In “Time and Distance Barriers to Mammography Facilities in the Atlanta Metropolitan Area”, the authors focus on public transportation options for getting to mammography facilities. Many women (usually minorities in low income households) rely on public transportation regularly. For these women, getting to medical facilities such as a mammography facility can be difficult, and thus decreases the chance of early detection of breast cancer. This article includes information about and an analysis of the Atlanta metropolitan transportation system. The evidence I found most useful was the differing results on wait times and travel times when in a car versus when using public transportation. Though the authors’ focus was primarily on public transport ion to and from mammography facilities, the data presented in the article can be applied to many other situations. Like my other sources, this article relates to my project topic of architectural exclusion. The women in need of public transportation to access mammography are victims of architectural exclusion as they are bound by the limits of the Atlanta metropolitan public transportation system.





Paget-Seekins, Laurel. “Atlanta: Unsafe at Any Speed: Transit Fatality Raises Issues of Race, Poverty and Transportation Justice”. Race, Poverty & the Environment 19.1 (2012) : 22–24. JSTOR Journals. Web. 21 Mar. 2016.

Laurel Paget-Seekins touches on the subject of transportation in relation to race and poverty in “Atlanta: Unsafe at Any Speed”. Tragedies such as the one that struck the Nelsons result from poor transportation and little access to specific areas. The long wait time for public transportation and the difficulty of walking long distances puts many in a difficult situation. This source is useful because it gives a look at the kind of struggle low income families (who do not have access to private transportation) face. Since the article was published in 2012, it is not clear of any other, more recent, advancements have been made in public transportation. However, the source still contains information that explores the effect poor public transportation in a way different than what can be found in my other sources. This type of architectural exclusion is present in most of the sources I will be using for my project.





Blau, Max. “The Bike Czar.” Atlanta 55.10 (2016) : 17-21. MasterFILE Elite. Web. 21 Mar. 2016.

“The Bike Czar” by Max Blau brings up the topic of biking. Many of the inhabitants of Atlanta use bikes to get around the city more easily. To decrease accidents and improve access for bikers, there are plans to add more bike lanes to the city. The evidence I have drawn from this source is the information on the addition of more bike lanes and how it has positively impacted the city of Atlanta. Unlike in the other sources I have found, this sources focuses less on the problem of architectural exclusion in the form of transportation in the way that its primary purpose is to inform readers of solutions. I think this article will be good to use so as to add substantial information to my project on what could be done to rectify the problem of poor transportation on Atlanta.





Blau, Max. “Back On Track.” Atlanta 55.6 (2015) : 106-117. MasterFILE Elite. Web. 21 Mar. 2016.

Max Blau focuses on Keith Parker’s commitment to improving and expanding MARTA in “Back on Track”. Since his start in 2012, Parker has gone to great lengths to improve safety on MARTA and to expand its reach. All of Parker’s efforts are solutions to the problem of architectural exclusion in the form of public transportation. Parker endeavors to make MARTA better for those who use public transportation and encourage more people to take a step toward accessing the public transportation available. This source is useful because it features ideas of improvement and offers hope that one day places that were previously out of reach for some people can be available to them. This article relates to my project and the other sources I have found because it is about architectural exclusion and the boundaries people are forced to stay in. However, rather than talking most about the negative effects architectural exclusion can have, this article is full of promising solutions and hope for a better transportation system in Atlanta.




transportation network

Lucy A. Peipins, Shannon Graham, Randall Young, Brian Lewis, Stephanie Foster, Barry Flanagan, Andrew Dent. “Time And Distance Barriers To Mammography Facilities In The Atlanta Metropolitan Area.” Journal Of Community Health 36.4 (2011): 675-683. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 21 Mar. 2016.