Annotated Bibliography #1

Carmona, Matthew. “The Place-Shaping Continuum: A Theory Of Urban Design Process.” Journal Of Urban Design 19.1 (2014): 2-36. Academic Search Complete. Web. 4 Feb. 2016.

This article discusses Urban Design. It begins by discussing urban design as a subject for investigation. This article focuses on London. It has a section called “Understanding Urban Design Process”. This section relates to the built environment in Atlanta because it goes into detail to discuss and understand Urban Design and how it is undertaken in different places, big or small. The next section discusses how urban design is situation in both place and time. How we act today is shaped by history of experience and practice. The urban design process starts before developmental proposals and these build up over a long period of time that causes changes all the way up to the present. It then gets into the actual process of urban design: designing, developing, using, and managing. This article is very detailed and well explained which is why I chose this source. There are a few terms and ideas in this article that are not defined which makes it a little difficult at times to understand exactly what the main point is. This source is scholarly making it a little difficult to read, but very informative and useful.

Annotated Bibliography #2

Inam, Aseem. “From Dichotomy to Dialectic: Practicing Theory in Urban Design.” Journal of Urban Design 16.2 (2011): 257-277. Academic Search Complete. Web. 4 Feb. 2016.

This article discusses dichotomy in practicing urban design. This article helps to address the assumption that theory and practice do not necessarily represent a dichotomy. It opens in the abstract saying “…a dichotomy in which theory represents abstract thinking to explain observations, while practice depends on a more instrumental conception of knowledge” (Inam 257).  This helps us to understand the built environment in Atlanta because we have a better understanding of practice and theory working together in urban design. It has a section that goes into detail explaining “practicing theory”. In this section is discusses an example “Good City Form”. The second section discusses how it’s possible to test usefulness of a theory to practice. Inam opens the conclusion by saying,

Urban design is at its foundation an intellectual activity; that is, the practice of urban design demonstrates a capacity for understanding and knowledge as well as the ability to think abstractly in order to explore its full potential (275).

I chose this source because it was very informative and had information useful to my research. The source was very good at explaining concepts. I did not find any flaws within because it was an easy read and reliable. This source is similar to my first one in that I found it through the library database as well as offers an opposing viewpoint.

Annotated Bibliography #3

Ellis, Cliff. “Process And Principles In Urban Design.” Journal Of Urban Design 19.1 (2014): 47-48. Academic Search Complete. Web. 4 Feb. 2016.

This article is a response to the first article I used. Ellis portrays the article in a good way. He discusses his support but also his opinion. He says, “No doubt, process is critical. But I hope that urban designers will continue the quest for processes that will actually produce beautiful, functional and humane landscapes” (Ellis 47). The information in this article helps to explain some of the concepts brought about in Carmona’s article, and it discusses that planning should be done in order to find the one that works. This relates to the built environment in Atlanta because everything has to be planned carefully. I chose this source because it was a follow up to an article I had already read. I think that the only flaw of this article is the bias Ellis has. He states his opinions rather than just concrete facts. This article offers an alternative viewpoint to Carmona’s article but also provides more in depth explanation of a few concepts.

Annotated Bibliography #4

GOMIS, Jordi, Carlos TURÓN, and Ramon RIPOLL. “Conceptual And Instrumental Influences In The Graphic Representation Of Urban Planning During The 20Th Century.”      Geographia Technica 10.2 (2015): 41-49. Academic Search Complete. Web. 24 Feb.     2016.

This article discusses the instrumental and conceptual historical events that have changed graphic representation of a town. This article is broken down into 8 different sections. The first section is the introduction, it introduces the main ideas and a brief history and background. In the second section, it discusses method. Gomis says,

In order to carry out a study such as this it is absolutely necessary to establish the trends that have existed in the graphic representation of planning and the main factors that have been involved, changing and transforming the drawing of urban planning throughout history (Page 31).

In the next couple sections it discusses brief histories of ancient times, the middle ages, and The Renaissance to Baroque. The biggest focus is on conceptual influences and instrumental influences. I chose this source because it was very detailed and seemed informative. It is a little hard to comprehend in certain areas but mostly easy to understand. It doesn’t offer an alternative viewpoint because it is a study.

Annotated Bibliography #5

GOMIS, Jordi, and Carlos TURÓN. “Conceptual And Instrumental Influences In The Graphic Representation Of Urban Planning: The Industrial Revolution And The 19Th Century.” Geographia Technica 10.1 (2015): 44-50. Academic Search Complete. Web. 24 Feb. 2016.

This article is a continuation of “Conceptual and instrumental influences in the graphic representation of urban planning: From ancient times to the Baroque”. Like the previous article, the set-up is similar. However, this article discusses the industrial revolution and the 19th century, unlike the last one, which discussed ancient times. It discusses the conceptual and instrumental influences like the previous article. The conclusion is the main pat I want to focus on. Gomis states that.

The changes in the instrumental techniques that have taken place throughout the historical process have been in parallel to the conceptual changes. But during the industrial revolution and the 19th century only the introduction of materials, drawing tools, and implements improved slightly the new city drawings” (Page 50).

I chose this source because it was closely related to my previous article. It is easy to comprehend and it’s short so a lot easier to keep my attention. There aren’t many flaws that I noticed personally. This article is directly related to my first article and it does a good job of explaining the concepts within the article.

Annotated Bibliography #6

GOMIS, Jordi, Carlos TURÓN, and Ramon RIPOLL. “Conceptual And Instrumental Influences In The Graphic Representation Of Urban Planning During The 20Th Century.” Geographia Technica 10.2 (2015): 41-49. Academic Search Complete. Web. 24 Feb. 2016.

This article is a continuation of the first two articles I chose. This article ends the trilogy of “articles that have sought to analyze the main influences that have shaped important changes in the representation of the town, graphically speaking” (Gomis, 41). This article discusses how the 20th century has changed urban planning. This article, like the others, discusses the conceptual and instrumental influences. The conclusion points to further changes in planning as we become more technologically savvy. I chose this source because it is directly related to the two previous articles. These articles discuss the changes in urban planning over certain times. This source is reliable and doesn’t seem to have many flaws to me. It is related to my other two articles, but they discuss different time periods to better explain the evolution of urban planning.

Annotated Bibliography #7

One of Museum’s built during Ludwig’s reign

Hagen, Joshua. “Shaping Public Opinion Through Architecture And Urban Design: Perspectives On Ludwig I And His Building Program For A “New Munich”.” Central European History (Cambridge University Press / UK) 48.1 (2015): 4-30. Academic Search Complete. Web. 24 Mar. 2016.

This article merely focuses on King Ludwig I of Bavaria launching a building program in order to transform his kingdom through urban design and architecture. He “believed that the patronage of art and architecture would enhance his political authority and foster a sense of historical legitimacy” (Hagen 4). This article is broken into 4 sections: “Ludwig’s New Munich”, “Reactions during Ludwig’s Reign”, “Securing a Legacy”, and “Conclusion”. For this, I will solely focus on the first section, “Ludwig’s New Munich” because it discusses Urban Design and Architecture. Ludwig’s beliefs formed from architectural debates throughout the 1800’s. He viewed architecture and urban design as “tools and symbols of authority and governance – ones that had the power to influence and educate the public” (Hagen 6). He was determined to transform Munich into a premier cultural capital. He did this through his building program. His program commissioned museums, galleries, and monuments. His goal was to reify his rule through “aesthetic expression of historical legitimacy, political authority, and royal prerogative” (Hagen 29). He did this through all of his plans and ideologies of urban design and architecture, by using these museums, galleries, and monuments to store and stash his personal belongings, to later be recognized by future rulers and followers of the kingdom. This article goes to show that architecture is a way of expressing power and authority. Atlanta has a lot of that, because of our monuments and historical attractions. This source was very helpful in explaining how urban design and architecture can be used to express power and authority. I personally found nothing wrong with this source. It was very easy to read and easy to comprehend. This source combines my research on urban design, urban planning, and architecture.

Annotated Bibliography #8

MIHAJILOVIĆ, Mila, Vanja ŠUŠTERŠIČ, and Gordana BOGDANOVIĆ. “Leed Technology In Urban Planning.” Acta Technica Corvininesis – Bulletin Of Engineering 9.1 (2016): 125-128. Academic Search Complete. Web. 24 Mar. 2016.

This article focuses on using urban planning for sustainable development of urban space in order to improve our environment. This article argues that with past developments in social and technological revolutions, it has taken a toll on our environment. Mihajlovic defines the concept of urban planning as “the anylsis of existing ways of using space, looking at the current problems, future needs, and resources, as well as defining developmental goals” (125). He claims that through this process, we can determine the further development and protection of the area. One thing he mentions as a big focus is green building. He defines this as “a concept when planning had a special emphasis on respect for the natural environment” (125). The first section of this article discusses the strategy for urban planning for sustainable development of urban space. He states that the aim for this strategy and plan is to “promote new forms of technology and their appliance in urban spaces” (126). In order to do this, he claims that we need to focus on the conservation of natural resources through recycling and minimizing their use. In his next section he focuses on green building. This is implemented by creating green spaces in cities. The last section discusses LEED, which is Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design. This concept combines all the ideas discussed throughout the article. This is done through teaching and educating people on the issues. I chose this source because it relates to urban planning and changing the environment around us in order to better it. This source relates to my previous articles because it discusses the concept of Urban Planning.

Annotated Bibliography #9

Khan, Ahmed Z., et al. “Integrative Spatial Quality: A Relational Epistemology Of Space And Transdisciplinarity In Urban Design And Planning.” Journal Of Urban Design 19.4 (2014): 393-411. Academic Search Complete. Web. 24 Mar. 2016.

This article addresses the values of spatial quality, using the concept of Urban Design to explain this. I’m only focusing on a small portion of this article that specifically discusses urban design. It discusses many perspectives that can be seen while working towards integrative spatial quality. The perspective I will discuss is seeing integrative spatial quality as “a holistic and dynamic imperative” (Khan 396).  He claims that integrative spatial quality is intended to work for the full range of urban design situations. He brings up two types of questions based on the idea that integrative spatial quality is seen as an imperative that holds the ‘core’ of urban design and planning together: the first question “is related to diagnostic and analytical methods – what type of qualities? And for whom? And how to read/identify them?” (396). The second question is “how to address, implement, develop and manage those qualities and who is/should be involved?” (396). He claims that in order to answer these questions, it takes time and careful work to deal with the concerns. I chose this source because it indirectly relates to the topic of urban design as a way of explaining spatial quality. This article is a little bit harder to understand because it doesn’t define specific things, but otherwise is very useful. This article is closely related to the concept of urban design and the role it plays in our environment and explaining certain aspects of that environment.

Annotated Bibliography #10

Jawad, Alia, and Sadeed Arif. “The Environmental Friendly Historic Urban Planning In Potohar Plateau, Pakistan: Lessons For Modern Architectural Plans.” Journal Of Asian Civilizations 36.1 (2013): 83-113. Academic Search Complete. Web. 24 Mar. 2016.

This article discusses the environmentally friendly, architectural materials used in developing the Potohar Plateau. Jawad discusses urban/town planning in a small portion of this article, which is what I will be focusing on. He claims “The historic architecture, urban and town planning constitutes an important part of cultural heritage of any nation” (84). Jawad states that this Plateau has a rich history and culture, “however there has been little research on its historic architecture or urban planning” (84-85). He discusses that urban planning provides clues to socio-psychological culture of its inhabitants. It is known that many historic cities and areas preserve their original urban planning and architectural styles due to their being in a remote location. Urban planning, unknowingly, has major impacts on architectural design of cities and areas. He concludes that “urban/town planning and architectural styles were environmentally friendly in nature” (94). I chose this source because it seemed reliable and informative. It was also one of very few sources relating to this topic. This article doesn’t go into much detail but was useful. This source relates to urban planning which is my concentration for my research throughout these annotated bibliographies.