Based on healthcare costs, reduced productivity, increased crime rates, and other effects, the cost of hunger and food insecurity in the United States is at least $160 billion at the very least (6). Individuals who are undernourished are at greater risk of hospitalisation due to poor immune systems and nutrient deficiencies which lead to serious illnesses, and the costs of hospitalization compounds with personal insurance costs and taxes applied to the larger population (10). 

Aside from the financial losses, the long-term effects of malnutrition continue to affect children throughout their development, which negatively impacts their productivity throughout life. These effects can occur as early as during fetal development if the mothers are also lacking adequate and necessary nutrition (10).