Goldie Blumenstyk

Goldie Blumenstyk, Taken on 2018

Goldie Blumenstyk, senior writer in The Chronicle of Higher Education is a respected expert on the business of higher education and higher-education policy (Blumenstyk). Known for her 25 years of reporting, Goldie Blumenstyk is recognized for winning multiple awards from the Education Writers Association. She is also known for contributing to The New York Times, OUPblog, EDUCAUSE Review, and USA Today. Goldie Blumenstyk is an important key figure in the history of American higher education because she explains how higher education is causing different demands for students and professors. Her book, American higher education in Crisis? What Everyone Needs to Know, is organized around questions someone might ask how higher education in American is shaped (Kevin).

Blumenstyk focuses on the values of higher education in America, higher education affordability and demographic trends in American education. she evaluated these problems by writing her book, many articles, visiting universities and attending many higher education interviews and talk-shows. Through these experiences she gained valuable insight and was therefore able to raise awareness of how American higher education is in trouble and how they can be rectified. Blumenstyk argues that higher education at this moment is in crisis; however, there are many ways to prevent these issues from permanently fracturing our education system (which she even puts into question if it’s even worth remedy.)

In 2012, a journal article, A Former Insider Questions the Morality of a For-Profit College, in One Act written by Goldie Blumenstyk focused on how for-profit colleges target minorities with financial difficulties. According to the article, of the two million students pursuing higher education in the United States, more than 40 percent are at community colleges and for-profit institutions (Boneva). In her article, we also see Blumenstyk expressing the “guilt” admission counselors at for-profit colleges feel towards their students stating, “For-profit at what cost?” (Blumenstyk). Blumenstyk does not necessarily tell us a solutions on what to do with for-profit colleges; however, she leaves us to think how students that attend for-profit colleges may affect their chances of managing their student-loan debts in short period of time and finding jobs they signed up for hoping they mastered their degree, and earning an accepted credentials that can transfer them to different universities (Blumenstyk).

In 2015, an academic review of Goldie Blumestyk’s book, American Higher Education in Crisis? What Everyone Needs to Know, illustrates the different aspects of how American higher education needs improvement. Blumenstyk mainly talked about three specific reasons why American higher education turned out the way it is now. Blumenstyk first talked about the price of American higher education and how education finances have changed over the past couple of decades. Blumenstyk emphasizes that postsecondary education instead of focusing on striving students for the better, it has transformed into a profit “Higher education is a big business” (Blumenstyk43). Blumenstyk states from 1969 through 2012, higher education spending annually increased by an average of “7 percent” (Blumenstyk 43). Blumenstyk alongside explained the main sources for colleges and universities revenues are from tuitions and endowments.

Blumestyk’s second argument was about student debts. Around 2011 the total amount of student debt reached $1-trillion, more than the total Americans borrowed for cars and the debt on their credit cards (Blumenstyk 60). Blumenstyk emphasizes that the cost of colleges created an ongoing debate in the economy. Blumenstyk additionally explains the effects school debt can cause for young adults’ ability to buy houses or even save for retirement later. Blumenstyk as well illustrated how for-profit students tend to be at risker position with school loan debts. For-profit college students borrow at higher rates (88 percent) than any student in public or private nonprofit colleges with an average debt of $39,950 (Blumenstyk 62).

Blumestyk’s third argument was about demographic trends in American higher education. The American student body is becoming more of minority groups (Hispanic and African-American). For instance, young Hispanic groups are the fastest growing demographic in the country covering 19% of college students from the age of eighteen to twenty-four years, however, they fall behind when it comes to earning a bachelor’s degree (Blumenstyk 13). The enrollment of African-American students increased from 1976 to 2012 reaching almost three million, however, the increase as a percentage of the total student population was not a major change (Blumenstyk 14). According to the Western Interstate Commission on Higher Education (WICHE), by 2020, minority students (African-Americans, Hispanics, Asian American, and Pacific Islanders) will be account for 45 percent of high-school graduates. Even though, we see an increase of minorities groups in American higher education, Blumenstyk debates how the graduate rate from both high school and postsecondary education is declining instead of expanding.

In 2015, an interview with Goldie Blumestyk focused on explaining her book briefly. Blumenstyk explains how higher education is still worth it by stating how it affects individuals and the country’s economy overall. Blumenstyk discussed for the past 25 years she has been examining and reporting higher education, she has never seen American higher education at risk. Blumenstyk explained how college competitions can boost the universities cost. She talks about how community colleges are as well great alternative options for adult students that don’t have the time and money to obtain higher education.

 In Blumestyk’s book, American higher education in Crisis? What Everyone Needs to Know, she talks about the solutions that can contribute to making American higher education better. Blumenstyk mentioned organizations such as Opportunity Nation, Young Invincible, and Student Debt Crisis that have come together to replace or to decrease the problems. Blumenstyk additionally talked about MOOC’s. MOOC’s (massive open online courses) are open online courses that are available to thousands of universities students for free (Blumenstyk127). She also introduced us to new ideas of lowering college tuitions by mentioning ideas that took place but didn’t quite last as long such as the 529 College Saving Plans, Donation to College, Free-College the Hope and Lifelong Tax Credits plans. Blumenstyk also talked about the “badges” and “stackable credentials” and if they can reduce or replace the tuition for colleges/universities. Stating higher education is more of monopoly, Blumenstyk explained “badges” as a recognition for a students’ specific requirements or skills and use those skills to communicate with boarder audience. For example, earning patches by Boy and Girl Scouts or points earned by winning a video game. Foundations such as Gates and Mozilla are supporters of the badges. The badge movement as well has highlighted the need to better recognize educational credentials leading for promotions or higher pay.

Goldie Blumenstyk truly explains what higher educations should look like in America since she has been studying it for over 25 years now. Blumenstyk provide problem-solution scenarios about American higher education to cover all the issues from student, parent and professor perspectives. She has repeatedly reminded us how valuable higher education is for self-betterment and for the nation’s explaining how it improved many lives for better lifestyle conditions. Goldie Blumenstyk leaves us by stating, “In America higher education, future belongs to those kinds of choosers, to the institutions that take steps to ensure and demonstrate that what they offer and how they offer it makes a difference” (Blumenstyk151).




Blumenstyk’s LinkedIn and Twitter accounts

Goldie Blumenstyk (@GoldieStandard) | Twitter

Goldie Blumenstyk LinkedIn  

Bkumenstyk’s Image


Blumenstyk’s website and interviews

Blumenstyk’s website

“HIGHER EDUCATION TODAY – Goldie Blumenstyk.”

What factors are driving up the cost of higher education?

What are the changing demographics in higher education and how should institutions adapt?


Blumenstyk, Goldie. “A Former Insider Questions the Morality of a For-Profit College, in One Act.” Chronicle of Higher Education, vol. 58, no. 32, Apr. 2012. EBSCOhost,

Blumenstyk, Goldie. American Higher Education in Crisis? What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford Univ. Press, 2015.

Bonevac, Daniel. “Crisis or Priceless?” Academic Questions, vol. 28, no. 3, Sept. 2015, pp. 355–363. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1007/s12129-015-9506-z.

GOLDIE BLUMENSTYK. “GOLDIE BLUMENSTYK.” The Chronicle of Higher Education, The Chronicle of Higher Education,

Gotouniversity. “HIGHER EDUCATION TODAY – Goldie Blumenstyk.” YouTube, YouTube, 8 May 2015,

Kevin Kinser. American Higher Education in Crisis? What Everyone Needs to Know by Goldie Blumenstyk (Review). no. 4, 2015, p. 619. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1353/rhe.2015.0036.










Ronald G. Ehrenberg

Prof. Ronald G Ehrenberg at his office in Cornell University’s ILR School
Taken on October 6, 2014

Ronald G. Ehrenberg an American Economist. Ehrenberg is the founding editor of Research in Labor Economics which began in 1977. He is currently the Irving M. Ives Professor of Industrial and Labor Relations and Economic at the Cornell university.  Ehrenberg has received many outstanding awards and has strived in many different leadership positions.  He has written books to make notice about the rising of tuition and who oversees higher education. Ehrenberg has and is still accomplishing great things in life.

Alongside being a great professor at Cornell University, he also is very active in leadership. Ehrenberg served as Cornell’s vice president for academic programs, planning and Budgeting from the year 1995-1998. From the year 2006-2010, Ehrenberg served as an elected member of Cornell board of trustees. Ehrenberg is the director of Cornell Higher Education Research Institute (CHERI). CHERI was established to provide medium for related research in higher education. He is also a research associate at the National Bureau of Economics Research.

Ehrenberg has co-authored, authored or edited many books that deals with issues in higher education. In the year 2000, his book titled Tuition Rising was published.  Ehrenberg talks about the rising of college cost based on his experience from being the vice president at Cornell. This book does not cover a wide range of colleges because Cornell is an elite/ private institute.  He suggests that for elite colleges to remain the top higher education, it is important to increase their expenditures. According to one article “He also stresses the importance of either the university having strong central academic leadership or the central administration having sufficient resources” (Soares).

Ehrenberg continues to thrive during his career. In 2003, the General Mills foundation award for Exemplary Undergraduate teaching was awarded to him by ILR-Cornell. He was also named the highest award for undergraduate teaching that is available at Cornell, Stephen H. Weiss Presidential Fellow. Ehrenberg truly deserves this award, according to his students he is a passionate and dedicated professor. According to one article Ehrenberg is very passionate about undergraduate education and involves undergraduate students in his research.

 Four years later after the publishing of Tuition Rising, “Governing Academia: Who is in Charge at Modern University?” was published. Ehrenberg was a co-author and he also the editor of this book. He wrote the introduction and the conclusion. He started the introduction stating the tuition for undergraduate students have been increasing more than public and private colleges/universities. He continues to talk about who is responsible for these colleges. According to Ehrenberg, “Faculty member play a key role in the governance of academic” (Ehrenberg). He continues to say they create new knowledge and are key participants in educational process along with students. Ehrenberg came to the realization that this divided governance between leaders (trustees, administrators and faculty member) in higher education leads to no one really overseeing academic institutions. In the conclusion he talks about the effect decentralizing may have on students in higher education. One effect as suggested is “At a level of a state system, decentralization of control may lead to wasteful overlap between campuses” (Ehrenberg). His final thoughts of his introduction introduce the growth of for-profit colleges. Ehrenberg says that this growth is putting a pressure on non-profit and public institution which may be an effect on how they are govern. Throughout this book Ehrenberg and his co-authors tries to open the eyes of his readers to see what is happening in colleges. Governing Academia can be useful for both students attending colleges/universities and individuals in charge of decision makings at these institutions.

Ehrenberg is also interested in the rising of humanities programs in colleges. In the year 2009, Educating scholar: Doctoral Education in Humanities was published. This book is used to show the importance of humanities field in higher education. The growth in the humanities field has not been the same as others. Ehrenberg and the other co-authors speaks about the devaluation of humanities(as a filed in higher education) and offers solution as to why this field is important. 

In 2011, Ehrenberg did an interview which he shared his views on what to expect from higher education in years to come. He says that colleges are finally evaluating their course structures and are finding ways to save money both for administration and for students. Ehrenberg predicts that in years to come the traditional classroom will be over turned by technology especially for media classes. The transformation in the United States where the social values are no longer important compared to private values may be a problem according to Ehrenberg. “Restoring the strength of our public higher education system and devoting more resources to them” (Ehrenberg). Ehrenberg suggest this could be a solution to help the future of higher education.

A true scholar and a devoted researcher, Ronald G. Ehrenberg. Ehrenberg has accomplished so much, and he continues to work towards the betterment of higher education. He was named the receipt of SUNY (State University Of New York) Chancellor’s Award of Excellence in Faculty service in 2018. Ehrenberg has performed many researches and has written many books which are now guides for upcoming generation. He has worked as consultant on many boards and trustee for many colleges and universities. Ehrenberg has been writing about the rising of tuition in higher education and according to his interview colleges are working towards controlling the tuition rising.


Ehrenberg’s interview and lectures 

The state and future of higher education  

A Master Class Lecture with Professor Ron Ehrenberg 

Ehrenberg’s LinkedIn Profile 

Ronald Ehrenberg 


Joseph A. Soares. “Tuition Rising: Why College Costs So Much. By Ronald G. Ehrenberg. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2000. Pp. X+322. $18.95 (Paper).” American Journal of Sociology, no. 3, 2003, p. 780. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1086/382001.


 Ehrenberg, Ronald G. Governing Academia: Who Is in Charge at the Modern University? Cornell University Press, 2016. EBSCOhost,


Ehrenberg, Ronald G. Educating Scholars: Doctoral Education in the Humanities. Princeton University Press, 2010. EBSCOhost,


“What’s Ahead.” YouTube, uploaded by Cornell ILR, 16 Nov 2011.

Cornell University. “Ronald G. Ehrenberg Cornell University”. Accessed on 29 November 2018

Derek Bok


Jonathan Browner

HON Eng 1102

Dr. Weaver







  Derek Bok 1930-



          Derek Bok has been a well-respected figure in higher education for over 50 years. His respective roles of student, law professor, dean and president of arguably the most prestigious university in the west (Harvard University), have afforded him expansive knowledge of the inner-workings of the American university system. Bok has applied this experiential wisdom and dissected his encounters with the meticulous and methodical mind of an attorney. Bok was born into an affluent family in Bryn Mar, Pennsylvania in 1930. His great-grandfather owned a publishing company, his grandfather was a renowned author and the first editor of the Ladies Home Journal, and his father was a Pennsylvania Supreme Court Judge. Despite his prestigious background, Bok was a perennial champion for the underserved and fought tirelessly for blind justice in the educational realm. Bok served as president of Harvard for more than 20 years and his opinions regarding higher education have been featured in countless journals, articles, and other publications. (Harvard Square Library)

          In his preeminent title, “The Shape of the River”, Bok and his esteemed colleague William G. Bowen delve into the consequences of race as it pertains to selective college admission. Bok effectively employs the strategy of logos and reports extensive quantitative analysis. The information that Bok used was pulled from a database that was formulated by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation over a four-year period called the College and Beyond Database (Shape of the River xxvii). The database contained the complete educational profiles of over eighty thousand undergraduates from 28 top schools in the years of 1951,1976, and 1989 (Shape of the River xxviii). Some of the records even included post-graduation information including job history, family income, and civic involvement (Shape of the River xxviii). This topic of discussion had not previously been so extensively researched, so the results of this investigation have been frequently used in subsequent studies (Horne).

          The book starts off with a brief history of the state of the African American demographic in the United States dating back to the 1940s (Shape of the River 1). Bok lays the groundwork for the book by explaining in detail the cause of educational deficits in the black locale. (Shape of the River 1) During this time, “only 12 percent of blacks aged 25-29 had completed high school; less than 2 percent could claim a college degree” (Shape of the River 1). With an education that was never meant to measure up to that of the white community from inception and a progression of lackluster attempts at bridging the gap, the book states that “the outlook for blacks seemed highly uncertain” (Shape of the River 2). In the midst of all the historical and statistical data, selective word choices revealed compassion for a downtrodden people. Bok inserted a quote from a former president that stated, “You do not take a person who, for years, has been hobbled by chains and liberate him, bring him up to the starting line in a race and then say, ‘you are free to compete with the others'” (Shape of the River 6). It seems that the co-authors could not help being a bit subjective as it relates to the mistreatment of blacks in this country. The book continues to discuss whether proposed discriminatory practices ranging from admission, job placement and salary are based on reality or “assumptions about facts” (Shape of the River 275).

          In a review of the book by Gerald Horne, the author agrees with Bok’s stance that achievement is directly correlated with the prestige of the area that a student is raised in. He also notes that the “de facto affirmative action” acceptance rate for alumnae children is almost double that of other applicants (Horne). This information lines up with the consensus about ivy league institutions and their suggested unfair admission practices. Bok, throughout the book, records a plethora of admission data – I would have to write a thesis to even scratch the surface- but one statistical finding was very unexpected. In this portion of the study, the comparison of black and white applicants that were admitted to selective colleges based on SAT scores was measured (Shape of the River 26). Research revealed that “In the upper-middle ranges of SAT scores, in particular, the admission probability for black applicants was often three times higher than the probability for white applicants” (Shape of the River 26). This statistic reverts me back to the historical context section in the preface where Bok displays his extensive knowledge of the law. He gives a chronological timeline of Supreme Court rulings with respect to education leading up to the case that potentially caused the aforementioned phenomenon.

          In the landmark case, Regents of the University of California vs. Bakke, the court ruled that racial quotas for minorities was a discriminatory practice and thus violated the Title VI rights of the white applicant who was excluded from medical school because of them (Shape of the River 8). This ruling spurred a sequence of Supreme Court cases concerning racially charged admission practices in higher education. The substantial contributions by Bok and Bowen have been mentioned in law journals and other legal publications in reference to fair admission policies. The Shape of the River even made its way into a Supreme Court Amicus Curiae document in the table of authorities section (Affirmative Amicus). The article in the Harvard Magazine reflected that The Shape of the River is “…the most comprehensive study of the effects of considering race as part of college and university admissions” (Affirmative Amicus). Bok’s bibliography is filled with books that challenge the current inconsistencies in higher education. With titles like “The Struggle to Reform our Colleges”, “Universities and the Future of America” and “Universities and the Marketplace: The Commercialization of Higher Education”, it is clear that Bok is unrelenting in his quest to reconstruct the institution of higher education in America.


          Derek Bok had an illustrious academic career, during which he attained a B.A. from Stanford, an LL.B from Harvard and a political science degree from the Paris Institute for Political Studies. Lastly, he procured an A.M. from George Washington University while serving as an officer in the military. Mr. Bok returned to teach at Harvard Law School until he became dean in 1968. He served as dean until 1971, at which time he became one of the youngest presidents in contemporary Harvard history and the only president to serve two separate terms. Bok served as president cumulatively for more than 20 years. He has received myriad accolades for his academic and instructional endeavors and now has his own namesake award granted annually for teaching excellence in conjunction with the university (Harvard Square Library).  Despite his affluent upbringing, stellar academic achievements, and being heavily celebrated and praised by his peers,  Derek Bok has retained a razor-sharp focus on equality in higher education and society en masse.

For more information on this scholar, visit the below links.

Derek Bok Harvard Profile

Derek Bok Center for Teaching and Learning

Derek Bok Graces the Cover of Time Magazine

Derek Bok Center Twitter Profile

Derek Bok Interview


                    WORKS CITED

Bok, Derek C. et al. The Shape of the River: Long-Term Consequences of   Considering Race in College and University Admissions. Princeton University Press, 2000.

“Derek Bok.” Harvard Square Library.


Horne, G. (1999). The shape of the river: Long-term consequences of considering race in college and university admissions by william G. bowen and derek bok.Radical Teacher, (55), 41. Retrieved from

“Affirmative Amicus.” Harvard Magazine, 2003.

Derek Curtis Bok

“Derek Bok: Can Undergraduate Education Meet Challenges?” Youtube. University of California Television, May 2011.

“Derek Bok Harvard Profile.” Harvard University.

“Harvard’s Derek Bok” Time, September 1986.,16641,19860908,00.html

Derek Bok Center Twitter Profile




W.E.B. DuBois

“Education is that whole system of human training within and without the school house walls, which molds and develops men.” – The Talented Tenth (1903) , W.E.B. DuBois 

W.E.B.DuBois the co-founder of the NAACP. Taken in 1918 by Cornelius Marion (C.M.) Battey

        W.E.B. DuBois, Ph.D. was one of the founders of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Before the creation of the NAACP, he established the Niagara Movement and coined the term The Talented Tenth. He was the first African American to receive a doctorate  from Harvard University. He was also a professor at Atlanta University, now known as Clark Atlanta University in Atlanta, Georgia, one of the few higher education institutions created for African Americans after the Civil War. He is often known as the “Father of Sociology” and is considered to be the basis of which the modern-day principles of American sociology was founded upon. DuBois has conducted and written about his research and findings of the struggles of the African American Society, the first of which was his The Philadelphia Negro, and he is most notably known for his collection of essays that addressed what he called the double consciousness, in his book The Souls of Black Folk. DuBois spent a majority of his life fighting for the civil rights of African Americans and urged them to gain higher education, for whites to acknowledge African Americans as people, and as their equals.

         DuBois came from a very stable, independent, educated family from New Barrington, Massachusetts. Due to his upbringing, DuBois was a free African American man and did not have to endure the cruel treatment of slavery and Jim Crow Laws. DuBois was always a very intellectual person and took great pride in furthering his education and would later receive a scholarship to attend Fisk University. It wasn’t until he attended Fisk University in Nashville, Tennessee in which he would come face to face with the unjust treatment of his people, that was predominantly found in the South. DuBois showed signs of being very concerned for his race and wanting to do something about the problems his race had faced, from a young age. After he attended Fisk, he went on to Harvard College (University), where he majored in Philosophy, with a concentration in History and would be the first person in his race, to gain a Doctorate from Harvard. DuBois has stated that “I was in Harvard but not of it” (DuBois 356). By the end of his higher education journey at the age of 26, he would have over 20 years of educational experience, which was more than anybody else of his race had. Due to slavery, African Americans were restricted and very limited to an gaining an education and would often have to face unjust and cruel punishments if they ever dared to learn how to read or seek education.

        It wasn’t until after the Civil War in 1865, that slavery in America was abolished, and African Americans had the rights to an American Citizenship. America had entered into a reconstruction, which was mostly for the south to redesign itself and change the ways that it governed all of its citizens, but the newly freed African Americans were still not treated as citizens or as equals to whites, and through work they had to still prove themselves in order to better the black community. The education that these people had so greatly sought after was their idea of how to obtain full citizenship in America and finally be treated equally and erase the color line that divided the races, once and for all. Few institutions were created for African Americans, both men and women, to seek higher education. Among these educational institutions founded after the Civil War were colleges of the Atlanta University Center: Atlanta University-1865 and Clark College-1869 (now Clark Atlanta University), Morehouse College-1867, Morris Brown College-1881, and Spellman College-1881 (“W.E.B. DuBois and the Rise of Black Education”).  DuBois would later become a professor at Atlanta University teaching Sociology. 

         In 1896, DuBois conducted a research project for the University of Pennsylvania, where his research would take place in Philadelphia’s seventh ward slums, examining the lives of African Americans a few years after the Emancipation. After witnessing how much prejudice the African Americans in this community had to endure, DuBois wanted to find some way to end this prejudice. He wrote about his research in the seventh ward slums and published The Philadelphia Negro in 1899. In this research analysis, he discussed that many African Americans from the slums would often face color education. He talked about a man who had graduated from the University of Pennsylvania with many white classmates, wanted to become a pharmacist and answered to an ad that was looking for one, but when he went to get the position, he was told “I wouldn’t have a darky to clean out my store, much less to stand behind the counter,” answered one druggist. A colored man answered an advertisement for a clerk in the suburbs. “What do you suppose we’d want of a nigger?” was the plain answer” (DuBois). His research showed that even though many African Americans sought higher education, they would often never get the chance to apply the knowledge that they acquired, due to the color of their skin, whereas whites would always get hired over them for the same position. Many of the people who lived in the seventh ward would often question the purpose of obtaining an education if they were never going to get hired for the position they wanted. The Philadelphia Negro was the cause of why DuBois is nicknamed the “Father of Sociology” because no one had ever conducted a scientific approach to studying social circumstances. 

         DuBois was hired to teach Sociology at Atlanta University, shortly after he published his research. During his time at Atlanta University, he had continued to study and publish books and essays about Negro morality, urbanization, Negroes in business, college-bred Negroes, the Negro church, and Negro crime (Hynes). He also went on to support Pan-African views, in which urged the unity of all African Americans, established by fellow civil rights activist Marcus Garvey. DuBois was well known for spewing out an endless amount of information on the race problem that America was facing at the time, and led to people wanting to conduct social reform for African Americans to gain their full rights of citizenship.

        As Social Reform for African Americans began to take place, there began to be many voices or leaders showing up to combat the race problem in America, one of which was Mr. Booker T. Washington. Unlike DuBois, Washington was born into slavery and did not have the full extent to gain an education like DuBois did. In 1895, Booker T. Washington gave his famous “Atlanta Composition” speech in present-day Piedmont Park in Georgia, at the 1895 Atlanta Cotton Exposition. The was never titled, but DuBois gave it the name “Atlanta Compromise,” which would be continuously used to refer to it to this day. Washington’s remarks essentially endorsed racial gradualism and the attention to the economic development of the black race in the South, developing cordial relations with southern whites to promote the industrial development of the region (Rouse). Washington’s speech was the first time an African American had the opportunity to give a keynote address at a white event. He called on blacks to overlook the grievances they had with the South for now, and he promised whites the continued loyalty of blacks, suggesting that blacks and whites could work mutually for the region’s growth and be as separate as the fingers along the issue of social equality. He had even stated that the majority of blacks would have to make a living using their hands, hence the promotion of industrial
education, with liberal arts not being a true option for blacks. Seemingly, many whites sided with Washington because his compromise offered them the winning end of the stick and basically told African Americans to continue working for whites until they have done enough work to be seen as an equal. With the speech, accepted by southern white leaders, Washington emerged from being merely the principal of Tuskegee Institute to becoming the major leadership voice for Black America. Rich whites sunk tons of money into industrial education. Washington became their reference for what to support, who to hire, and what to believe about race relations (Rouse).

        In response to Booker T. Washington’s “Atlanta Compromise,” DuBois published The Souls of Black Folk in 1903. In the book, one of the titles were “Of Booker T. Washington and Others,” and it analyzed the views of Mr. Washington and those who accepted and supported his philosophies. DuBois supported a classical liberal arts education, one in which African Americans would have to prove to whites that they can gain the same higher education as whites in fields of chemistry, math, and literature to prove themselves as equals, whereas Washington favored and Industrial education, which involved African Americans gaining higher education in fields they used to, such as carpentry and blacksmithing, in order to continue performing labor jobs and task for whites. DuBois discussed how that was the wrong way to go and would only make whites see that African Americans are not good for anything but to perform “slave work” and gave whites the power to continue exerting control over African Americans. The book also answered double consciousness questions that were being asked by the black community, such as how to deal with the issue of segregation. DuBois and other prominent Black leaders were upset and enraged with Washington’s ideas for their people, so they organized the Talented Tenth, which was a group of men who would be the ones to lead their race into true freedom that they deserved.  Also in 1903, DuBois would publish The Talented Tenth which discussed this new added social class of men and how with their knowledge would go on to benefit their community. The Talented Tenth would later go on to form the Niagara Movement, which took place on the Canadian side of the Niagara Falls in 1905 because African Americans were not allowed to meet on the New York side. The Movement would challenge the ideals of Washington and discuss means of nonviolent protest, voting rights, better schools, and higher education to gain African Americans their rights. The movement started with 29 people and increased over time, but it would eventually come to an end due to Washington hiring spies to join the group (Rouse).  The movement later led to DuBois becoming a co-founder of the NAACP and is known as its grandfather because it formed the basis of this organization. To this day, the NAACP has been successful in aiding the black community.

         DuBois also later published books that involved the concept of higher education. He is known for The Black Flame Trilogy,  which detailed one mans journey of seeking education. Of the books in the trilogy, are The Ordeal of Mansart (1903), Mansart Builds a School (1959), and Worlds of Color (1961). The Trilogy is considered an autobiography of the perspectives of many African American’s journeys to education. The main character was once a slave, but would go on to gain education of his own, and build up an entire university for higher education, from scratch.  He also published The Quest of the Silver Fleece which detailed the experience of two African Americans, a man and a woman, protesting for the same education as whites and discusses why it is important for African Americans to obtain the same kind of education as Whites rather than gaining an Industrial Education. DuBois also was the founder and the editor of The Crisis magazine in 1910, which was created for educated African Americans to detail their first-hand experience with obtaining a college education and how whites felt about it. DuBois lastly wrote a book which compiled his 54 years of essays, research, and speeches on higher education, whether it was industrial or classical. Another book he published was The Dark Princess in 1928, which was not really a book on higher education, but did showcase how an African American male was told that he could not have a certain profession due to his race, but went to India where people of his color were treated very greatly and could do anything they wanted to do.

        DuBois died in August of 1963, but his contributions to the Black Community and the higher education for African Americans have made a very lasting impact. DuBois led the civil rights movement of his time but inspired people like Martin Luther King Jr. for the Civil Rights Movement of the 1950s and 1960s. Without DuBois, African Americans probably would not have been able to gain jobs in engineering, science, and history, to name a few, or it would have taken even longer for the race to be able to be seen as an equal to whites and even receive the chance to an education. He continues to inspire people every day and played a key role in gaining rights for the race.

My Personal Research:

Check out my Historical Research paper that went to the School, District, Regional, and State Levels of the National History Day Competition from 2017-2018. It details the perspectives of DuBois and Washington written in an exchange of letters. Enjoy!!!

Letters on the Color Line: W.E.B. DuBois v. Booker T. Washington by Natalia Brown

Websites on DuBois

NAACP History: W.E.B. Dubois

W.E.B. DuBois Website


DuBois, W.E.B. “A Negro Student at Harvard at the End of the 19th Century.” The Massachusetts Review, vol. 1, no. 3, 1960, pp. 439–458., Bois, WEB.pdf.

Du Bois, W. E. B. Dark Princess, a Romance. Kraus-Thomson Organization, 1974.

DuBois, W. E. B., and Herbert ApthekerThe Education of Black People: Ten Critiques, 1906-1960. 1973

DuBois, William Edward Burghardt. “The Evolution of Negro Leadership.” The Dial, 16 July 1901, pp. 53–55. Teaching American History | The Evolution of Negro Leadership. 

DuBois, W.E.B. The Quest of the Silver Fleece: A Novel. A.C. McClurg & Co. of Chicago, 1911.

DuBois, William Edward Burghardt. “Niagara Movement Address.” The Niagara
Movement. Canada, Fort Erie, Ontario. July 1905. Teaching American History |
The Niagara Movement Speech. 

DuBois, W.E.B. “The Philadelphia Negro.” Teaching American History,

DuBois, William Edward Burghardt. “The Souls of Black Folk: Essays and Sketches.”
Chicago: A. C. McClurg, 1903. Microsoft Word – Du Bois, W.E.B.-The Souls of
Black Folk (1903).doc. W. W. Norton & Company, 2010. Web.

Milner, Jonathan. Personal Interview. 14 Oct. 2017.

Rouse, Jacqueline. Personal Interview. 2 Nov. 2017.

“Talented Tenth.” Double Consciousness [DuBoisopedia], University of Massachusetts , 18 Dec. 2013,

Washington, Booker T. “Atlanta Compromise Speech.” 1895 Cotton States and
International Expositions. Atlanta, Georgia. 18 Sept. 1895. African American Odyssey. Web.


Linda Darling-Hammond By: Hanan Abdelrahmn

Linda Darling Hammond is a current Charles E. Ducommun Professor of Education Emeritus at Stanford University, the Faculty Director of SCOPE, and President of the Learning Policy Institute. Hammond is a renowned author and editor in the institutions of higher education. Throughout Hammond’s life, she has gathered an interest in academic restructuring, educational policy, educational equity, and race, inequality, and language in education (RILE). Hammond takes a lot of responsibility when concerning higher education because she fears society is allowing for higher education to be mediocre or to be demolished over time due to their lack of voice and opinion as a unit.

Hammond utilizes her platform to assist society in understanding a variety of concepts regarding higher education. Hammond’s Twitter page targets the millennial generation by promoting government officials who plan to upgrade higher education, updating her followers on news regarding inequality, education, and voting, and lastly by retweeting posts that millennial might have an interest in. Hammond also, uses her social media platform to educate the public on the importance of their voice; she has continuously promoted voting for lower government officials all the way to the president. 

Initially, Hammond fears that higher education is poor due to society’s lack of responsibility to positively evolve the institute. Hammond uses her platform to influence the conversation of how to proceed with higher education. Hammond was the leader of former President Barack Obama’s education policy transition team. According to James B. Hunt (former Governor of North Carolina), “when Linda Darling-Hammond speaks, American’s listen!” (Hammond, Preface) Hunt describes Hammond’s book as being the pamphlet to a better life of higher education’s policies and teaching methods. Darling-Hammond’s research, teaching, and policy work focus on issues of school restructuring, teacher quality and educational equity. 

Hammond took it upon herself to write multiple books on the importance of helping prosper higher education in the future. In “The Flat World and Education, How America’s Commitment to Equality Will Determine Our Future” by Linda Darling-Hammond asserts the concerning future of a system built on “high-archiving and equitable schools that ensures every child the right to learn.” (Synopsis, Hammond) Hammond titled her book “The Flat World and Education, How America’s Commitment to Equality Will Determine Our Future” because just like centuries ago when civilizations believed the world was flat and technological advancements have not been established we can conclude that society had a plethora of  social discoveries to be made. Hammond compares the flat world to education because she is disappointed on the progression of higher education. Hammond is mainly disgusted on the concepts of inequality when it is associated to education of all levels. 

Hammond contributes many roles and stances relating to higher education. Hammond is a college professor and a policymaker ; she has managed to make changes to education by joining Stanford’s University policy assisting team and becoming former President Barack Obama’s education policy transition team. Hammond has created a reputation that will suppress her being; she ran an extra mile by joining various policy makers teams in order to help her gain perspective on the concrete vindication of the failures of higher education. Ultimately, this helped Hammond in building connections with government officials and teacher who have the same enthusiasm for injustices regarding education.

In “Learning to Teach for Social Justice” by Hammond,  illuminates the changes institutions should make that will eventually better their workforce and education system through lessons. This is an important source to have because Hammond discusses the importance of building higher education to not only benefit society but to benefit the overall well-being of students. It has been proven that teachers can make a difference in their students lives so, Hammond urges society to take advantage this opportunity to learn a variety of life-lessons pertaining to any subject. 

Hammond’s main goal is to help higher institute education to receive the recognition of any other education system. Hammond believes that education should be modernized in order to, become suitable for the generation that utilizing it. Education should be treasured because it builds economies as well as, millennial minds and spirits.  In addition, Hammond believes that if education is modernized regularly it will drown in past policies and ancient  administrations traditions. 

In conclusion, Hammond empowers students to fight for their rights of education. Linda Darling-Hammond is a higher education scholar that wrote more than 20 books on all levels of education. Hammond’s books provide a direct line to Hammond’s perspective on her education issues. This is an important source to have because it discusses the importance of teaching more than just to educate the public but, encourages teachers and professors to teach student how their voice matters in society and how to speak up and fight for issues (higher education and social injustices) that matter the most to students.

Linda Darling-Hammond

Photo of Linda Darling-Hammond, President and CEO of the Learning Policy Institute for research, action, and impact.  

Photo by: The Learning Policy Institute for research, action, and impact.  



Darling-Hammond, Linda, Jennifer French, and Silvia Paloma. Garcia-Lopez. Learning to Teach for Social Justice. New York: Teachers College, 2002. Print. Multicultural Education Ser. (New York, N.Y.).

Darling-Hammond, Linda, Robert Rothman, and ProQuest. Teaching in the Flat World: Learning from High-performing Systems. 2015. Web.

Darling-Hammond, Linda. The Flat World and Education: How America’s Commitment to Equity Will Determine Our Future. New York: Teachers College, 2010. Print. Multicultural Education Ser. (New York, N.Y.).

Deborah Burnett Strother, and Linda Darling-Hammond. “An Interview with Linda Darling-Hammond: A Wide-Ranging Look at Current Issues in Education.” The Phi Delta Kappan,no.6,1988,p.447.EBSCOhost,

Hammond, L. (2009 May). Twitter Feed. [Tweets] Retrieved from www.

Martin, Linda E., and Thalia M. Mulvihill. “Current Issues in Teacher Education: An Interview with Dr. Linda Darling-Hammond.” Teacher Educator, vol. 52, no. 2, Jan. 2017, pp. 75–83.EBSCOhost,



Robert Maynard Hutchins

Aaron Jimenez

Pr. Weaver

English 1102


Robert Maynard Hutchins

            My scholar is Robert Maynard Hutchins, he was born on January 17, 1899 in Brooklyn, Ney York, and died on May 14, 1977 in Santa Barbara, California. He founded the Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions and the Great Books Foundation. He was an American educator and a university president, who thought that the college curriculum needed to be balanced. He, also, came up way many theories to try and fix the issue with education, the same education issue that we have today. Robert Maynard Hutchins believes that students in universities will learn a lot more and be more efficient in their education if they actually learned from someone related to their interest in education. We should listen to Robert Maynard Hutchins because he wanted to perfect the higher education system, and many of the things that he said is still relatable today.

            Some of Robert Maynard Hutchins theories are the Theory of Society, Theory of Knowledge, and the Theory of Learning. First, The Theory of Society is basically that the society affects the universities, which, ultimately, affects the students attending the universities. Universities in today’s age should take this in and start giving students knowledge about society rather than just lecturing about something that does not help the student in any way. In The Theory of Knowledge, Robert Maynard Hutchins explains that the teacher has to currently have knowledge of anything he or she is teaching to actually be affective. This theory seems obvious, but it supports his argument in which that the only way for a student to learn about his or her particular field is to learn from somebody who has knowledge in that field. This leads us to the Theory of Learning, which Robert Maynard Hutchins says that knowledge “is acquired partly from intellectual operations and partly from experience. But the chief requirement for it is correctness in thinking. Since education cannot duplicate the experiences which the student will have when he graduates, it should devote itself to developing correctness in thinking as a means to practical wisdom, that is, to intelligent action” (The Higher Learning in America 112).  If you would like to learn more about his other different theories you can check them out on here.        

The higher education system is becoming a waste of time for students who want to gain knowledge on their specific field. In “Education for Freedom” by Robert Maynard Hutchins, he shows that “Education provides the great peaceful mean of improving society; and yet as we have seen, the character of education is determined by the character of society” (Education for Freedom 58). He believes that the higher education system has the power to create peace in society but it can also be influenced by the society. What he says is important because the higher education system have seem to forgotten this. Robert Maynard Hutchins believes that school shouldn’t teach us what we should and shouldn’t do. Instead, it should teach us how to make our own determinations. He believes that college cannot make us good, but rather teach us ways for us to find out what is good.

Robert Maynard Hutchins got a chance to change things when he became the president of the University of Chicago. He said that “We have confused science with information, ideas with facts, and knowledge with miscellaneous data”. His idea of a higher education system was too start a collegiate education in the third year of high school and end after the second year of college, which created the “two year degree”. His curriculum had 14 year-long courses with the basics on physical, biological, and social science and the humanities. He believed that students can take a test whenever they want to prove their mastery on a subject. His idea of teaching was through discussion not lecturing. Most universities thought that his Chicago plan was outrageous. No universities wanted to accept his Chicago plan. Even the state legislature investigated the University of Chicago because they thought that what Hutchins was doing was a “communistic influences” in the school.

Robert Maynard Hutchins wants to find the best possible way for a student to move in his or her education. He was a brilliant man who raised a lot of arguments about education, society, and learning. He should be heard because his ideas lay a foundation on the right path to a better society and the higher education. To forget him and his ideas means making the higher education system worse.


  1. Hutchins, Robert Maynard. Education for Freedom. Louisiana State University Press, 1947.
  2. Hutchins, Robert Maynard. The Higher Learning in America. Routledge, 1936.
  3. Britannica, The Editors of Encyclopaedia. “Robert Maynard Hutchins.” Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 10 May 2018,
  4. Hutchins, Robert Maynard. The Conflict in Education: in a Democratic Society. Greenwood Press, 1976.

Jeffrey Selingo

Jeffrey Selingo, Special Advisor to the President at ASU

Jeffrey Selingo, Special Advisor to the President of Arizona State University and founding director of the Academy for Innovative Higher Education Leadership, is an author of three books that exhibit the future of higher education. Including his three books, Selingo has written dozens of articles for The Washington Post and The Atlantic and was the former editor for The Chronicle of Higher Education. Throughout his books, articles and media appearances, Selingo adds to the issue of the climbing debt that crushes the students of the current generation. Selingo attempts to tell his audience that colleges and universities are succumbing on becoming a monopoly instead of an educational institution. 

Written in 2013, Jeffrey Selingo’s  first book, College (Un)bound: The Future of Higher Education and What It Means for Students, has helped best shape the argument for what the future entails for higher education. As his other books tell the readers about alternatives and tips, this book goes in-depth about the issue of how college has significantly changed into the corporate business it is today. Since the beginning of the book, Jeffrey Selingo details the situation with blunt statements on how college isn’t exactly helping the student anymore but helping them dive into debt. “Colleges now view students as customers and market their degrees as products.” (Selingo 5 College (Un)bound) Selingo directly implicates that the student is influenced to go to school to polish their resume with the highest credentials, so they can compete in the competitive job market. Selingo states this as he talks about the inflated credentials that colleges showcase. The students he targets in this quote and throughout the book, are mainly students who go to college to receive a job. He stresses the issue of the uncertain future that will affect the current generation. Chapter three, titled “The Trillion Dollar Problem” helped execute Selingo’s argument on how the appeal of schools ends with the student having soul-crushing debt problems. “…about the price they’ll actually pay and the amount of financial aid they’ll really get.” (Selingo 37 College (Un)bound) Selingo sees that colleges tend to try to hide tuition fees and financial aid costs to con students into paying a huge amount of money.

Later that year in May, Selingo joins the Morning News Edition on NPR radio station for an exclusive interview about Selingo’s first book. In this interview, Mr. Selingo explains that American colleges have “lost their way” in educating their students enough to compete in the job market. Selingo goes on to say that college campuses are more concerned about their expensive dorms and attracting certain students instead of the quality education they should be providing (Selingo). As the federal government continues to cut the funding for colleges and universities, the cost of tuition gets higher and more students are blindsided by the debt. Selingo points this out with the trend of population growth.  “…students have to fly halfway across the country to pay $50,000 for a degree that they’re not quite sure what they’re going to do with.” (Selingo) As the population of 18 year old high school graduates continue to populate in the southern part of the United States, Northern state colleges must advertise strictly to attract them to attend their colleges.

College (Un)bound has received many reviews saying that this book can help students see the bigger picture of higher education. A book review by Andrew Gillen proposes that Selingo advocates for a technology based change in higher education. He implies that the class of 2020 will be seeing radical changes of technology in their courses. Also Gillen points out “…the fundamental problem is that universities must strive to be more prestigious, because that’s the only arena for competition.” (Gillen 503)  Status in higher education is crucial to many colleges standings in the nation. Prestige dominates quality education when most students apply to college. Gillen sees that Selingo is understanding the present situation and tries to put the pieces together for the future of the current generation.

In 2014, Selingo adds a new factor to his argument; MOOCs. MOOCs are massive open online courses for people that live in remote areas use to receive a college education. This was regarded as the “higher education savoir” when it first started in 2011. In September of 2014, Selingo wrote an article about the revolution of MOOCs and how it has impacted thousands of students across the world. These courses are a cheap alternative than going to a regular college or university. But MOOCs weren’t as sustainable as many people thought. It proved to be a huge setback in little over a year of its existence. Selingo believes that MOOCs are not a complete failure yet. The way they can be implemented in traditional colleges and universities proves that these online courses have hope. While this may not happen in the next five or ten years, Selingo continues to advocate for them and he believes that higher education will soon benefit from MOOCs.

As we fast forward a couple of years, in 2015, an article referencing Selingo’s book, College (Un)bound, explains why colleges are not “…navigating the current economic climate particularly well due to habits established long before the economic collapse.” (Jabbaar-Gyambrah and Vaught 2015) Since the recession, colleges and universities have blamed the economic collapse of 2008 on decreased budgeting. America has since recovered from the dreadful recession and have moved on to preventing it. The co-authors Vaught and Jabbaar-Gyambrah claim that Selingo is right in this case because higher education is being influenced by the wrong factors in rising tuition costs. With this valid argument comes more unsolved questions about the supposed “investment” students make in college.

Jeffrey Selingo also wrote another book revealing tips and advice to students and professors. There Is Life After College is the most recent book Selingo has written and has captured interest from other higher ed scholars and college students. This New York best-seller does have essential tips for this current generation when they enter the job market. Most college graduates are clueless on finding and recieving a job. As a response, Selingo helps students find employment that will satisfy the parents. While this book does not explain in-depth about the current situation of college, Selingo provides his readers a blueprint on how to successfully find and maintain a job in the current job market.

Jeffrey J. Selingo has helped students, professors, and parents fully understand that the institution of college is broken. He has reached millions of people in America with his books, articles and countless media appearances with this idea. The recurring theme in Selingo’s publications state that there must be certain measure taken to help the students in America successfully receive a college degree in any major without the various costs that come with it. Selingo proposes technology based courses to reduce the everlasting cost of college, but this could take a long time. Without change to the higher education system, Selingo claims that  future generations will be drastically affected and the future of college is questionable.




College, Lafayette. “Lafayette College – Inauguration of 17th President Alison Byerly.” Flickr. Yahoo!, 05 Oct. 2013. Web. 04 Dec. 2018.

Gillen, Andrew. “Change Is Coming: College (Un)Bound: The Future of Higher Education and What It Means for Students, by Jeffrey J. Selingo. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2013, 256 Pp., $26.00 Hardbound.” Academic Questions, vol. 26, no. 4, Dec. 2013, pp. 500–504. 

Selingo, Jeffrey J. College (un)bound : The Future of Higher Education and What It Means for Students. 2013. Print.

Selingo, Jeffrey. With Gorgeous Dorms But Little Cash, Colleges Must Adapt., 13 May, 2013

Selingo, Jeffrey. “MOOC U: The Revolution Isn’t Over.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. The Chronicle of Higher Education, 29 Sept. 2014. Web. 04 Dec. 2018.

“There Is Life After College – Jeff Selingo.” Jeff Selingo. Jeff Selingo, n.d. Web. 04 Dec. 2018.

Thornton, John F. “College (Un)Bound: The Future of Higher Education and What It Means for Students.” Publishers Weekly, vol. 260, no. 12, Mar. 2013, p. 60.

Vaught, Seneca, and Tara Jabbaar-Gyambrah. “Why College as an Investment Is a Lousy Analogy.” Journal of College Admission, no. 226, Winter 2015, pp. 24–29


Important Links

Jeffrey Selingo Photo

Twitter Page

Keynote Speaking/Upcoming appearances

Does college fail grads in the workplace?

ASU/Georgetown Higher Ed Partnership

Claudia Goldin


European University Institute Degree recipient Claudia Goldin
Taken on June 9, 2017, by the European University Institute

Claudia Goldin is currently the Henry Lee Professor at Harvard University for Economics. Previously she was the director of the National Bureau of Economic Research Development of the American Economy program for 28 years. She is known as an economic historian and laborer, but recently her research has been centered on women in college and technology in education. Through her two books, publications, and interviews, Claudia Goldin is attempting to inform her readers and listeners about women in higher education, the impact of technology on higher education, and the virtues of higher educational success.

In 1990, Goldin became the first tenured woman at Harvard’s economics department. In the economics department, she researched and collaborated with her colleague Lawrence F. Katz. Katz was also an economics professor at Harvard. Goldin co-authored the article “Decreasing (and the Increasing) Inequality in America: A Tale of Two Half-Centuries” with Katz in 2001. In this article, they split the 20th century into two periods. The first half of the 20th century was described as the period which narrowed inequality, but the second half of the 20th century was the widening of inequality period (Goldin & Katz 1). In the article, they also examined the wages in both of those periods and compared them.

In 2008, Claudia Goldin co-authored with Lawrence F. Katz on the “Transitions: Career and Family Life Cycles of the Educational Elite” article. This article discussed the transition of women who were more educated and going into the workforce while getting married and beginning a family. The report showed how certain women in higher education have significantly lower marriage and childbearing rates than other women in higher education. Goldin’s and Katz’s argument is that the common factor for the women in higher education who have such low rates in childbearing and marriage is the fact that they are earning advanced degrees and attending selective institutions. This presented a similar argument of the one found in the 2001 article “The Quiet Revolution that Transformed Women’s Employment, Education, and Family.”

Later that same year, her most recent book published in 2008, The Race between Education and Technology, is co-written by Lawrence F. Katz and the winner of the 2008 R. R. Hawkins Award. In this book Goldin argues everyone gains when there is a balance of educational and technological advancements; but “when technology gets ahead of education, the educated tend to walk away with a disproportionate share of the fruits of progress (Hout 950).” She further explains that for an individual, a nation, and higher education to have success innovation and evolution are essential. Innovation in education is of importance because education is crucial in having a sustainable future. Innovation brings necessary and positive change not only in education but industries and businesses. She also discusses what she and Katz identify as the three virtues of U.S. higher educational success: openness, forgiveness, and competition (Connolly 840). In chapter 5, Goldin and Katz further analyze how public institutions compete with one another and private institutions, how those who drop out or get held back can recover, and how most educational intuitions minimize selection and specialization (Goldin 320).

Shortly after in 2009, Jes Cisneros reviewed Goldin’s book, The Race Between Education and Technology. Jes Cisneros wrote this review to focus on her Kairos argument about the race between education and technology and how to get America back on track in due time (Cisneros 6).  The review also explained how advancements in technology are hindering the education system. More specifically, she states that high school students have been left behind by the technological skill set demands of the modern labor market and quotes, “today’s high school graduates and dropouts are perceived by employers as being close substitutes” (Goldin 307). Goldin is concluding that between high school graduates and dropouts the “elasticity of substitution” has shifted due to a large number of high school students who have been left behind by the technological skill set demands of the modern labor market.

In an interview at the National Bureau of Economic Research in Cambridge, Massachusetts, Claudia Goldin is asked a series of questions to examine her arguments in her previous work. In the interview, Goldin states that her arguments in 2008 on technology and women in education remain. The advancements in technology must balance with education for the educated to prosper. Also, women in higher education tend to have low rates in marriage and childbearing. Goldin states, “That meant these young women could engage in different forms of investment in themselves; they attended college to prepare for a career, not to meet a suitable spouse.” (Econ 7) She argues that the most important change that occurred in history that is somewhat responsible for this is female-controlled birth control and the control women now have over their careers because they are not subjected to have “pink collar jobs.”

Claudia Goldin is re-examining the history of women and technology in higher education to find solutions on how to better the higher education system. She combines economic theory and historical evidence to show the urgency for higher education to balance technology and education. She has currently been working on a project called “Women Working Longer.” This project is discussing how older women ages 60-64 are college graduates and in the labor force. She is raising the question, why have they not retired? To answer the question, she studies the issues concerning family, occupation, education, health, and financial resources. To, date, Goldin’s primary focus has been on women in higher education and how to continue women’s growth in today’s economy. It remains to be seen if Claudia Goldin will soon impact the growth of women’s stance in the economy and higher education.


Important Links

Claudia Goldin’s Websites at Harvard University

Claudia Goldin – Henry Lee Professor of Economics

Claudia Goldin’s Twitter account

Claudia Goldin – @PikaGoldin

Claudia Goldin’s Panels and Lecture Videos

State of Democracy: Claudia Goldin

Claudia Goldin on the Quest for Career and Family

Claudia Goldin on Gender Equality in the Labor Market  

Written by:  Brieanna Miller 


CISNEROS, JES R. “The Race between Education and Technology by Claudia Goldin and Lawrence F. Katz.” History of Education Quarterly, vol. 49, no. 4, Nov. 2009, pp. 538–542. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1111/j.1748-5959.2009.00230.x.

“Claudia Goldin.” Econ Focus, vol. 18, no. 4, 2014 4th Quarter 2014, pp. 24–28. EBSCOhost

Devani, Tanya. “Narrowing the Wage Gap.” Harvard International Review, vol. 38, no.2, Spring 2017, pp. 68–72. EBSCOhost

European University Institution. “EUI Honorary Degree recipient Claudia Goldin and Professor Hans-Wolfgang Micklitz.” Flickr, EUI, Jun. 9 2017

Goldin C, Katz LF. Decreasing ( and then Increasing) Inequality in America: A Tale of Two Half  Centuries. In: Welch F The Causes and Consequences of Increasing Inequality. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; 2001. pp. 37-82.

Goldin, Claudia Dale., and Lawrence F. Katz. The Race between Education and Technology Harvard University Press., 2008.

Goldin C. Notes on Women and the Undergraduate Economics Major. CSWEP Newsletter.2013;(Summer) :4-6, 15.

Michael Hout. “The Race between Education and Technology. By Claudia Goldin and Lawrence F. Katz. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2008. Pp. 320. $39.95.” American Journal of Sociology, no. 3, 2009, p. 950. EBSCOhost

Michelle Connolly. “The Race between Education and Technology Claudia Goldin Lawrence Katz.” The Economic History  Review, no. 3, 2010, p. 840. EBSCOhost

Example Good Post


Richard A. DeMillo, Ph.D. is currently the Executive Director of the Center for 21st Century Universities at The Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech.)  He was appointed to that position after many years of service in industry and academia.  DeMillo is an accomplished computer scientist who has led numerous federal government research grants on computer encryption and optimization.  In his research center,

Richard A. DeMillo, Director of the Center for 21st Century Universities at Georgia Tech

DeMillo focuses on how to increase the value proposition of higher education in the decades to come.  He offers a technology-based strategy to deliver quality content to more students at a lower cost.  DeMillo argues that traditional universities must be more open and efficient if they are to survive.  With his two books, numerous publications, and frequent interviews, he is attempting to create a sense of urgency among academia and consumers of education.  DeMillo’s Kairos-style argument warns that change is coming to academia.  He feels the system must change to survive by adopting technology and mastery learning techniques. 

In 2012, DeMillo co-wrote an article on his collaborative views of the adoption of open, online, college content.  He and his colleagues argued that innovative universities will be the future leaders of higher-education.  They believed that the application of technology to learning was the future of innovation in universities.  DeMillo et al discussed teaching through massively open online courses (MOOCs) and its implications for distributed learning.  (Baker)  This was a furthering of his arguments offered in his 2011 book, Abelard to Apple: The Fate of American Colleges and Universities.

Later that same year, DeMillo wrote an article about three promises technology brings to higher education.  These promises are significant but do undermine the model of traditional universities.  He offered that open access to accredited content, global access to education via the internet, and viable web-based learning communities were the future.  In DeMillo’s opinion, these technologies threaten the stranglehold campus based universities have had on higher education for centuries.  (DeMillo, Keeping Technology Promises)

In 2013, Georgia Tech introduced an online Masters in Computer Science which was in keeping with DeMillo’s vision for the future of universities. His colleague and Dean of the College of Computing at Georgia Tech, Zvi Galil, launched the program.  It was designed to deliver top quality content from a top 10 ranked program to a broader audience at a fraction of the cost.  (Kahn)  Today, the degree serves over 6,000 students for less than $7,000 in total tuition.  This represents a savings of over $35,000 for out-of-state students.  In this manner, DeMillo and Galil embraced the new frontier foretold by DeMillo’s original 2011 book. 

Three years later, DeMillo wrote his latest book on the future of university education.  Revolution in Higher Education: How a Small Band of Innovators Will Make College Accessible and Affordable contained the culmination of seven years of his thinking about the 21st Century University.  In chapter 4, titled “Technology Curves”, DeMillo makes his strongest points about the merits of on-line education to overcome cost and quality issues with the existing college system.    He wrote about why opponents of on-line education attack its impersonal nature.  More than teaching in person, DeMillo says, “What does have an impact is feedback.  The effect of feedback is stronger than almost any other single factor on student achievement” (Loc1992).  The author goes on to point out that teaching small bites with frequent feedback loops between teacher and student is most effective.   DeMillo adds that another challenge to on-line teaching can be grading.  He offers that these courses have “an abundance of peers to act as potential reviewers”.  In his mind, this application of lateral learning techniques makes on-line content more effective for student and instructor (Loc2091).  He talked about a future where open, on-line content from the best professors can be delivered at a fraction of the cost all over the world with these types of aides. He concluded, “What happens when even better results for even more students can be achieved by hiring even fewer professors” (Loc2257).   (DeMillo, Revolution in Higher Education: How a Small Band of Innovators Will Make College Accessible and Affordable)

In 2017, an academic review of DeMillo’s book, Revolution in Higher Education, was written, focusing on his kairos argument about why universities can’t change quickly enough.  He blames much of the challenge on bureaucratic tenured faculty and their “obliviousness to new realities”.  With rising costs and declining quality, he argues that the only solution is to find more efficient ways to deliver quality content to more students.  (Kepka)

In a jointly authored book chapter, Rafael Bras, Provost of Georgia Tech, and DeMillo wrote that those universities which do not innovate will fail to exist in the future.  Even in 2017, they continue to refine DeMillo’s earlier kairos argument.  The authors describe the challenge of innovating educational approaches within the slow moving, bureaucratic pace of a university.  “One thing is certain: important technological change is often both disruptive and unavoidable. The list of industries that have tried and failed to resist the onslaught of technology is long and provides an important object lesson for higher education.” (Bras and DeMillo)

In a recent interview at Georgia Tech, DeMillo laid out his vision for the university of the future.  When he was appointed Director in 2008, DeMillo began in earnest to think and write about the future of higher education.  His Kairos-style thesis from 2012 still remains.  Universities must change to remain relevant.  DeMillo argues for mastery learning delivered through MOOCs.  Mastery learning is small bites of information, delivered in repetition with assessments of learning progress.  If learning is not observed, new methods are then employed.  He sees MOOCs in combination with social network mentoring as a way to deliver mastery learning.  DeMillo argues that these tools can lead to changes in the ways universities teach.  This new way addresses the ills of the current system which is too costly and has declining quality. (DeMillo, 10 Questions: Rich DeMillo, Ph.D. CS ’72, A Disruptive Force in Higher Education)

Richard DeMillo is truly ahead of the curve when it comes to innovation of education.  He has long believed and argued the urgency for universities to modernize in order to survive.  Since his early days at Georgia Tech, he has been working towards launching MOOCs.  He sees the reluctance to change by universities’ administrators and faculty as a brick holding them down.  DeMillo has helped launch many programs along his vision, including an online master’s of computer science at Georgia Tech.  This made the master’s degree much more affordable and accessible.  DeMillo argues that without change, universities will soon cease to exist as we know them.  He offers up MOOCs focused on mastery learning and peer mentoring as a solution.  To date, DeMillo has made much headway towards modernizing and saving the institution of college.  Only time will tell if his vision will save higher education.


DeMillo’s Websites at Georgia Institute of Technology

Richard A. DeMillo – Center for 21st Century Universities – Georgia Tech

Richard DeMillo – Georgia Tech College of Computing

DeMillo’s LinkedIn and Twitter accounts

Richard DeMillo LinkedIn

Rich DeMillo (@richde) | Twitter

DeMillo’sVideo Interviews

Richard DeMillo Google Talk

ASU GSV Summit: GSV PRIMETIME: Rich DeMillo, Professor of …

Connect 2016 – “Revolution in Higher Education” Keynote: Rich DeMillo

DeMillo’s Image

Richard DeMillo Image


Baker, Paul M.A. et al. “The Evolving University: Disruptive Change and Institutional Innovation.” Procedia Computer Science 14 ( 2012 ) (2012): 330 – 335. Journal.

Bras, Rafael L. and Richard A. DeMillo. “The Leadership Challenges for Higher Education’s Digital Future.” Antony, James Soto. Challenges in Higher Education, Practical and Scholarly Soutions. New York: Routledge, 2017. 256-274. Book Chapter.

DeMillo, Richard A. 10 Questions: Rich DeMillo, Ph.D. CS ’72, A Disruptive Force in Higher Education Roger Slavens. 12 July 2017. Website.

—. “Keeping Technology Promises.” Association of Computing Machnery (2012): 37-39. Journal .

—. Revolution in Higher Education: How a Small Band of Innovators Will Make College Accessible and Affordable. Boston: MIT Press, 2015. Book.

Kahn, Gabriel. The MOOC That Roared: How Georgia Tech’s new, super-cheap online master’s degree could radically change American higher education. 23 July 2013. Website. 20 July 2018.

Kepka, Jennifer A. “Book review of Revolution in Higher Education.” Open Praxis, International Council for Open and Distance Education (2017): 359-360. Journal.


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