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Reading Summary 6: Better Online Living through Content Moderation



The article, “Better Online Living through Content Moderation”, People have the option to block or restrict certain content that they do not want to have in their lives. In certain cultures victim’s abuse online is not treated with the intensity that it should. Online bullying provokes violence and caused a great amount of stress to victims. The writer argues that people should not have to explain, or get ridiculed if they decide to block certain things from their online experience. People should not have to be forced to accept being labeled as weak and sensitive. Online bullying is not the same as exposure therapy. Exposure therapy is used to gradually combat anxiety through exposure. Online bullying is not therapeutic. Online bullying is random unnecessary attacks against people who want relief from the harassment they receive. People should have a say in how their personal story is being portrayed online so there are options to block and ways to limit what others can see.

The writer also states that the public is not informed in the ways a person can get PTSD. Most people believe only veterans can contract PTSD. Bullying has a severe impact on mental health. Symptoms from PTSD are depression and even suicide. PTSD from bullying can be prevented or blocked from content control. The misconception of online harassment causes hurt and mental problems.

Some people are opposed to blocklists. They feel as though their internet experience is being hindered because of another person. Although they may not be involved in the bullying process they are still opposed to blocking. Online bullying is very vicious and can be constantly persistent. Gamergate threatens people into silence. They will also go as far as threatening a person’s family members. Content control allows victims to protect themselves from the vicious people who sit behind their computers. One of the best things victims can do is to takes the necessary steps to keep them safe physically and mentally. Intimidating tactics designed to silence people is illegal.

Women are large targets for online bullying . Women who are in male dominated areas are more subject to sexism and harassment. Sexism online is not something a woman should just “get over”. Women may want to go online and enjoy games just as a man would, possibly to get away from sexism and harassment in real life. Dealing with the constant bombardment of threats and negativity can definitely cause PTSD for women.

Blocking is not a silencing tactic but is a way to shelter those who have been victimized. The writer suggests that people should be in charge of their own online experience. Those who are against blocking lack empathy for those experiencing trauma. Most people do not think of those with mental problems and those who are not like them. People do not think about other’s mental state so they tend not to care about feelings other than their own.

Online harassment can be stopped if individuals were more sensitive to the lives of others.



Reading Summary 4: His & Hers: Designing for a Post-Gender Society


Emily Bazelon writes about the type of discrimination that come with public bathrooms. The bathroom is a place where most be people fell vulnerable and may feel more exposed than they ever have in a public place. Bazelon points out how Women wait for an extremely longer period of time than men to use the bathroom. Groups outside of male and female seem to not have a stance or equality for the necessity of using public restrooms. The fear that a man will hurt a female in a mixed stall has scared people out of equality. Transgender students all over the country are being called by their preferred name and join the sports team identify with which is a step towards equality at all levels but not all. A teenage transgender undergoing hormone therapy is not being treated as the person she is. Her school will not allow her to change with other females in the locker room. This is seen as a problem because children are being discriminated against. At the same time the transgender teen does not fit in ordinary category that has previously existed so some “accommodations must be made. The word accommodation is, “…often sets up a distinction between the normal and the other” (Bazelon). Those who are transgender and some who are not transgender want Transgenderism to be normalized. Making “accommodations”, seem as there is being room made for the undesired. Bazelon tries to prove to the reader that separated bathrooms based on sex is a form of segregation. Some feminist feel as though certain “accommodations”, for men benefit them and do not do the same for females. “Over time, women have become attached to the camaraderie of the ladies’ room” (Bezelon). The camaraderie that women share is also a way to discriminate against transgender people. Women highly enjoy the time spent in the bathroom away from men and the time to spend with a women or someone they see as an equal to them. When a transgender person comes in to join the camaraderie, women do not want to share themselves with a man. Time in the ladies room was meant to be for them and feel as though a “man”, is coming in and stealing their time. Transgenders feel pushed out of society and pushed out of everyday activities such as using public restrooms. Something as simple as using the restroom to a person who is transgender equates to a huge problem that involves the help of the law. To a person who is transgender, walking into a bathroom full of women is normal because although she is not fully a biological one, she feels as though she is. The gender she identifies with is what she feels she should be treated as. Other accommodations are made for children and adults who have certain disabilities to make them feel comfortable in their skin and have the same rights as others. Those who are transgender want to same rights and common privileges as other human beings.

“His & Hers: Designing for a Post-Gender Society – Metropolis Magazine – March 2015.” Accessed February 17, 2016. http://www.metropolismag.com/March-2015/His-or-Hers-Designing-for-a-Post-Gender-Society/.

Reading Summary 3: Recognizing Campus Landscapes and Learning Spaces



college campus


There is a significant amount of students enrolled in colleges and universities throughout the United States. The amount of student are intended to rise even more throughout the years. Kathleen G. Scholl and Gowri Betrabet Guulwadi, propose,”… that the natural landscape of a university campus is an attentional learning resource for its students” (53). A university campus is a representation of the learning environment and the university itself. All parts of the university, open and closed spaces, should represent not only the quality of the university but the community it is in as well. Technology may cause students attentional fatigue. Gulwadi and Scholl want to figure out how buildings, open roads and spaces, and natural open learning spaces help to support the learning experiences with the students.

Historical Context of the American College Community

Gulwadi and Scholl begin by describing the definition of the word campus itself. Originally campus was another way of saying field but campuses are now defined as, “…overall physical quality of higher education institutions” (Bowman, 2011). Most universities and colleges were built in rural areas as a way to be secluded the city and city lifestyle. This way students and faculty can have a sense of their own space and environment to learn. After the Morrill Act of 1862. Open space on campuses became more popular and common as a way to introduce different types of studies at universities and colleges. Because of this campuses became more open compared to the previous way campuses were linked together. There was a shift in the way campuses were created and universities and colleges are redefined in this way. After the Second World War, colleges and universities grew and so did their outside spaces. There was a change from usual all pedestrians to lots of students driven and even possibly commuting. With an increase in cars parking lots had to be made available on campuses. Open spaces are used for ecology, agriculture, and other environmental studies. Outside environments must be treated with care and be valued by those who live by campus and the surrounding community in order to preserve the environment.

Concepts of Attention and its Impact on Student Learning

The word landscape describes the relationship between the built environment and nature. Nature is proven to help human cognitive functions such as problem solving and concentration. Involuntary attention of the environment and nature allows students brains to replenish itself involuntary. Having nature around positively benefits the students in ways that may consciously and unconsciously understand.

Holistic Landscapes for Holistic Learning

There are six main settings for human-nature interactions. They consist of indoor, urban, fringe, production landscape, wilderness, and specific species human-nature interactions. These interactions can also take place in three modes which are indirect, incidental, and intentional. Holistic landscapes provide opportunities for students to enjoy nature on an everyday basis. Holistic landscapes also allows holistic learning experiences.


Student learning consists of structured and natural environments. This balance occurs to give college and university students a holistic environment because of the landscape provided. Public trails, study areas, and learning environments give students a chance to explore their campus, community, and a chance to interact with their environment. Colleges and universities go beyond aesthetic value. They advertise the thing that matters the most, the educational value.


Scholl, Kathleen G., and Gowri Betrabet Gulwadi. “Recognizing Campus Landscapes as Learning Spaces.” Journal of Learning Spaces 4, no. 1 (July 8, 2015). http://libjournal.uncg.edu/jls/article/view/972.

Reading Response 2 : Irina Nersessova


Margaret Morton’s photographs of the homeless people of New York City demonstrates how urban space impacts the psyche and behavior of those who live there. Morton’s photographs capture shanties built in New York City. Morton’s individual pictures come together to reveal that the homeless are actually united and solid human beings. Shelter is a major part of someone’s identity. Being homeless may seem as though their identity is fragile and that their identity is constantly being taken away from them. The homeless indeed have a home just not as stable as other. Having personal space gives room for individuality. When the homeless are discussed they are neglected of self-identity. In capitalist societies people are defined by their shelter and the material things that they have. This is flawed because a home can be taken away or destroyed. Being and homeless is seen as a complete binary compared to being housed but in fact it is not. Spectacles such as these rely on image promotion and mass media. Everything is seen as a representation of what people desire to have. In order for the working class to live comfortably and no longer struggle, capitalism needs to be abolished. Morton’s interviewees use space creatively and use materials that do not treat the environment as a commodity. Morton’s photographs display the conflict between society and the spectacle of the reality of the homeless people’s lives. Riots in the 90’s addressed problems in the oppressive state, education system and social justice. Morton’s photographs also displays the two so called “binaries” as being alike and in the same common place. Mass marketing is formulated to continuously push out certain communities such as the homeless. The Situtationist International’s goals include eliminating division between arts and exploring spaces to understand an environments psychological impact on those that live in that area. Morton understands that imposed inhibitions and prohibitions must be overcome in order to lose oneself. Overcoming inhibition plays a keys role in Morton’s willingness to journey into tunnels and abandoned streets. While Morton captures the transitory lives of the homeless, she also captures the outside attempts to destroy the homes made in the tunnel. One of Morton’s interviewees named Bernard, states that aboveground life distracts people from the individual self. Underground life is not dedicated to images and accumulating commodities. Bernard uses space to achieve a certain level of consciousness he believes is necessary for survival. Another interviewee does receive money from the government but it is not nearly enough to live in a way that is fixated on commercial messages and things not needed for survival. Safety may seem like a major downfall living in the tunnels but it sometimes may be the least of their worries. The darkness of the tunnel prevents strangers of the area from coming into the tunnels which gives them the ultimate level of security. Residents of the tunnels have extensive knowledge of aboveground space which allows them to easily travel above ground to obtain the essentials and necessities they need to survive. The actual label of being homeless has been negatively associated with criminal behavior. The ability to live underground is a result of the lack of use of public space and poor conditions. Homelessness is not defined by having a home but by the lack of stability of their home.


NERSESSOVA, IRINA. “Tapestry Of Space: Domestic Architecture And Underground Communities In Margaret Morton’s Photography Of A Forgotten New York.” Disclosure 23 (2014): 26. Advanced Placement Source. Web. 25 Jan. 2016.


Reading Summary One : Sarah Schindler


Sarah Schindler describes the architecture exclusion theory and how architecture exclusion is practiced. Architecture regulates human behavior and serves as a physical barrier to poor people and people of color. Sarah Schindler opens up by describing how the “Master Builder” of New York City, Robert Moses, created the city with architectural exclusion in mind. Moses intentionally directed overpasses to be low in order to prevent people of color and poor people from accessing certain areas. Architectural exclusion is considered a built environment. A built environment is characterized by man-made features that make it extremely difficult for certain individuals to have access to certain areas. Wealthy White people have the power to control who enters their community. Wealthy White people have opposed allowing MARTA go through their neighborhood. By doing so wealthy people can decide who has access to their community. The majority of people who live in wealthy neighborhoods own a private vehicle therefore they do not depend on other methods of getting where they need to go. Most poor people rely on public transportation to get to work, school, etc. By excluding MARTA, wealthy white people can prevent poor people from maintaining a suburban job. Most people of a low economic class rely on MARTA Transit. In 1974 affluent Whites requested a street that connected a White neighborhood and a Black neighborhood to be closed off. The United States Supreme Court did not challenge this action. This raised the level of speculation for the Associate Justice Thurgood Marshall. Thurgood Marshall believed that the 1974 decision sent a clear message that Whites did not want poor or people of color in their neighborhood and the academy backed them up. Most individuals fail to realize how urban design or urban architecture, is a form of regulation. Most people are not aware of the types of architectural exclusion because they believe things are not made with an alternate motive in mind. Majority of people are blind to how the law and the lawmakers treat exclusionary acts and how poor people and people of color are detached from society. People tend to believe that the structures of cities are made for general public interest but in fact the structure of cities preserves the United States long history of intentional discrimination and exclusion. Few fail to realize the extent in to which segregation still takes place in the form of architecture. One way streets, the absence of sidewalks, locations of highways, and location of transit stops shape the demographic of a city and how those thing isolate one community from the next. Exclusionary amenities are placed to make generally expensive residential developments not appeal to certain demographic groups. Fichies Homeowner Hypothesis suggests that homeowners are more likely than renters to vote to protect property investments. Landscape is the most overlooked instrument of racism. Walled ghettos are an example of physical segregation because they separate people of color from Whites and make it strenuous for the people confined to get where they need to go. One wall doubled the time needed to arrive at a grocery three miles away from their residence. Walls are built to “calm traffic” and is also known as a “traffic diverter”. These traffic diverters are known by its residents as the “Berlin wall for Black People”. This renaming shows how the people feel like their being kept in and isolated from society. Bridge exits and highway exit ramps are located to filter traffic away from wealthy communities. Locations of highways destroy low income neighborhoods. One-way streets distract and confuse visitors to discourage unknown visitors from coming to that area. Measures have even gone as far as removing directional signs to intimate wealthy people from visiting or going through poor neighborhoods. Architectural exclusion stem from decisions made in the past but continue to persist today.


SCHINDLER, SARAH. “Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination And Segregation Through Physical Design Of The Built Environment.” Yale Law Journal 124.6 (2015): 1934-2024. Academic Search Complete. Web. 24 Jan. 2016.



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