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Annotated Bibliography 6: Pollution From Construction

“Pollution From Construction.” Accessed February 25, 2016. http://www.sustainablebuild.co.uk/pollutionfromconstruction.html.
Construction of new buildings cause air, water, and noise pollution. Actually building the built environment is a hazard to people. ” All construction sites generate high levels of dust…” These dust particles are invisible to the naked eye which can affect us without even noticing it. The dust particles, soot and other toxins can cause health risks such as lung damage. Certain pollutants such as diesel, oil, and paint create water pollution which can disturb the life of certain plants and animal that live in the area. Construction sites are very noisy and may disrupt people living in that area.  There are numerous ways to help the built environment stay clean and that are not harmful to individuals working and living in the area.


Construction is very important to building the built environment. Many thing that are of use in a particular area are enjoyed without thinking of the work it took to built such a place. The building of the environment itself has certain effects on our everyday lives.




Annotated Bibliography 5: Impact of Waiting Rooms

“Build a Positive Atmosphere in the Waiting Room to Make Patients Comfortable and Happy.” Accessed February 25, 2016. http://www.dignityhealth.org/cm/content/pages/build-a-positive-atmosphere-in-the-waiting-room-to-make-patients-comfortable-and-happy.asp.

In article,” Build a Positive Atmosphere in the Waiting Room to Make Patients Comfortable and Happy”, list the major influences the waiting room has on the patients mood. Waiting time in a waiting room is crucial to a persons patience level, anxiety, mood, and level of pain. The mood and attitude of doctors, nurses, or other people who work in a doctors office can also influence the patients mood . “Not being greeted by a receptionist… can also impact the patient’s mood”.


Major conditions can change a person’s mood in a waiting room. Lighting, artwork, furniture, reading material, Internet access and technology, and the overall layout can change someone’s experience in a waiting room . The lighting in a waiting room, for example, is very important because a dark dim place does not seem very suitable to be treated.


By having a hospital nearby, student may want to feel they someplace safe to go if an accident occurs. The layout of the hospital is very important. Having a hospital on campus is  a certain luxury that most people do not have in their built environment.




Annotated Bibliography 4: Bicycle Lanes

“Pedestrian & Bicycle Information Center.” Accessed February 24, 2016. http://www.pedbikeinfo.org/planning/facilities_bike_bikelanes.cfm.
bike lanes
The article, “Bicycle Lanes”, the author clearly defines the use of bike. Bike lanes offer a, “…sense of comfort and perceived safety…” Bike lanes are away to maintain safety for motorist and bicyclist. The lanes offer a safe area for bicyclists to prevent dooring and other accidents caused when they don’t have a safe place to ride their bikes.
There are many things to consider before having a bike lane. Bike lanes may require a lot of maintenance to keep debris out of the lanes to prevent accidents. Bike lanes are also very expensive; prices ranging from 5,000 to 535,000 dollars. On the flip side bike lanes promotes safety to pedestrians and motorists.
This article relates to the overall built environment because it shows how willing some communities are able prepared to go, to make everyone in the community feel welcome and safe. There are bike lanes in the downtown Atlanta area which shows how diverse the city actually is. it has lanes for anyone regardless how they get to their destination.

Reading Summary 4: His & Hers: Designing for a Post-Gender Society


Emily Bazelon writes about the type of discrimination that come with public bathrooms. The bathroom is a place where most be people fell vulnerable and may feel more exposed than they ever have in a public place. Bazelon points out how Women wait for an extremely longer period of time than men to use the bathroom. Groups outside of male and female seem to not have a stance or equality for the necessity of using public restrooms. The fear that a man will hurt a female in a mixed stall has scared people out of equality. Transgender students all over the country are being called by their preferred name and join the sports team identify with which is a step towards equality at all levels but not all. A teenage transgender undergoing hormone therapy is not being treated as the person she is. Her school will not allow her to change with other females in the locker room. This is seen as a problem because children are being discriminated against. At the same time the transgender teen does not fit in ordinary category that has previously existed so some “accommodations must be made. The word accommodation is, “…often sets up a distinction between the normal and the other” (Bazelon). Those who are transgender and some who are not transgender want Transgenderism to be normalized. Making “accommodations”, seem as there is being room made for the undesired. Bazelon tries to prove to the reader that separated bathrooms based on sex is a form of segregation. Some feminist feel as though certain “accommodations”, for men benefit them and do not do the same for females. “Over time, women have become attached to the camaraderie of the ladies’ room” (Bezelon). The camaraderie that women share is also a way to discriminate against transgender people. Women highly enjoy the time spent in the bathroom away from men and the time to spend with a women or someone they see as an equal to them. When a transgender person comes in to join the camaraderie, women do not want to share themselves with a man. Time in the ladies room was meant to be for them and feel as though a “man”, is coming in and stealing their time. Transgenders feel pushed out of society and pushed out of everyday activities such as using public restrooms. Something as simple as using the restroom to a person who is transgender equates to a huge problem that involves the help of the law. To a person who is transgender, walking into a bathroom full of women is normal because although she is not fully a biological one, she feels as though she is. The gender she identifies with is what she feels she should be treated as. Other accommodations are made for children and adults who have certain disabilities to make them feel comfortable in their skin and have the same rights as others. Those who are transgender want to same rights and common privileges as other human beings.

“His & Hers: Designing for a Post-Gender Society – Metropolis Magazine – March 2015.” Accessed February 17, 2016. http://www.metropolismag.com/March-2015/His-or-Hers-Designing-for-a-Post-Gender-Society/.

Reading Summary 3: Recognizing Campus Landscapes and Learning Spaces



college campus


There is a significant amount of students enrolled in colleges and universities throughout the United States. The amount of student are intended to rise even more throughout the years. Kathleen G. Scholl and Gowri Betrabet Guulwadi, propose,”… that the natural landscape of a university campus is an attentional learning resource for its students” (53). A university campus is a representation of the learning environment and the university itself. All parts of the university, open and closed spaces, should represent not only the quality of the university but the community it is in as well. Technology may cause students attentional fatigue. Gulwadi and Scholl want to figure out how buildings, open roads and spaces, and natural open learning spaces help to support the learning experiences with the students.

Historical Context of the American College Community

Gulwadi and Scholl begin by describing the definition of the word campus itself. Originally campus was another way of saying field but campuses are now defined as, “…overall physical quality of higher education institutions” (Bowman, 2011). Most universities and colleges were built in rural areas as a way to be secluded the city and city lifestyle. This way students and faculty can have a sense of their own space and environment to learn. After the Morrill Act of 1862. Open space on campuses became more popular and common as a way to introduce different types of studies at universities and colleges. Because of this campuses became more open compared to the previous way campuses were linked together. There was a shift in the way campuses were created and universities and colleges are redefined in this way. After the Second World War, colleges and universities grew and so did their outside spaces. There was a change from usual all pedestrians to lots of students driven and even possibly commuting. With an increase in cars parking lots had to be made available on campuses. Open spaces are used for ecology, agriculture, and other environmental studies. Outside environments must be treated with care and be valued by those who live by campus and the surrounding community in order to preserve the environment.

Concepts of Attention and its Impact on Student Learning

The word landscape describes the relationship between the built environment and nature. Nature is proven to help human cognitive functions such as problem solving and concentration. Involuntary attention of the environment and nature allows students brains to replenish itself involuntary. Having nature around positively benefits the students in ways that may consciously and unconsciously understand.

Holistic Landscapes for Holistic Learning

There are six main settings for human-nature interactions. They consist of indoor, urban, fringe, production landscape, wilderness, and specific species human-nature interactions. These interactions can also take place in three modes which are indirect, incidental, and intentional. Holistic landscapes provide opportunities for students to enjoy nature on an everyday basis. Holistic landscapes also allows holistic learning experiences.


Student learning consists of structured and natural environments. This balance occurs to give college and university students a holistic environment because of the landscape provided. Public trails, study areas, and learning environments give students a chance to explore their campus, community, and a chance to interact with their environment. Colleges and universities go beyond aesthetic value. They advertise the thing that matters the most, the educational value.


Scholl, Kathleen G., and Gowri Betrabet Gulwadi. “Recognizing Campus Landscapes as Learning Spaces.” Journal of Learning Spaces 4, no. 1 (July 8, 2015). http://libjournal.uncg.edu/jls/article/view/972.
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