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Annotated Bibliography 1


Hospers, Gert-Jan. “Lynch’s The Image Of The City After 50 Years: City Marketing Lessons

From An Urban Planning Classic.” European Planning Studies 18.12 (2010): 2073-

  1. Business Source Complete. Web. 5 Feb. 2016.


Kevin Lynch is an architect who taught urban planning for thirty years. In the article, Lynch’s The Image of the City after 50 Years: City Marketing Lessons from an Urban Planning Classic, the writer explains the main elements that Lynch concluded that people see in a city.  He also introduces the term “image ability”, which is defined as “that quality in a physical object which gives it a high probability of evoking a strong image in any given observer”.   Lynch concluded that most people see cities as a built image. The five main elements of cities consist of paths (lines of movement), edges (transition zones), districts (distinctive city zones), nodes (strategic meeting zones), and landmarks (singular objects). These five things usually overlap. “Lynch hoped authorities would pay closer attention to urban designs and to “improve the quality-of-life (Lynch 2075)”, of those who live in the area. City marketers are extremely concerned with the image of their city. A poor image could negatively affect economic performance in that area. Lynch concludes that the link between a city’s image and its built environment can be exploited for the purpose of city marketing.

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