Resnik, David B. “Urban Sprawl, Smart Growth, and Deliberative Democracy.” American Journal of Public Health. American Public Health Association, n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2016. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2936977/>.
David Resnik cautions in this article that increasing urban sprawl in large amounts in the United States can have adverse affects in the long run on the health of the population. Factors such as pollution from car emissions, water pollution, and deforestation all come in to play when dealing with a large, sprawling city. Why does this problem seem to be getting out of control? The fact that cities are growing faster than they are growing smarter according to Resnik. Before cities are ready to take on large amounts of new residents they should first prepare for them, for what its worth. Cities usually build and make adjustments and adaptations based on what happens instead of what they anticipate happening and that is problematic according to the text. Also Resnik stresses that land owners and developers must be more selfless and less money hungry. Resnik’s article is a well-balanced analysis of what’s happening in America’s cities.
Dai, Dajun, Emily Taquechel, John Steward, and Sheryl Strasser. “The Impact of Built Environment on Pedestrian Crashes and the Identification of Crash Clusters on an Urban University Campus.” Western Journal of Emergency Medicine. Department of Emergency Medicine, University of California, Irvine School of Medicine, n.d. Web. 28 Apr. 2016. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2941370/>.
“The Impact of Built Environment on Pedestrian Crashes” is a scholarly article written by a group that details car crashes as a serious public health concern. The research used in the article was taken from data of Georgia State University’s campus safety records. The argument made is that the built environment of college campuses like Georgia State increase risk for students and drivers as they are constantly sharing the same space. Over 31,000 students navigate the school daily as an estimated 14,000 vehicles cascade the streets claimed by the college. The study proves that with increasing numbers of pedestrians and vehicles in a limited space, man made environmental factors such as speed bumps and crosswalk signs become even more critical. However, the campus of GSU as other urban research facilities lack an adequate amount of precautionary measures it takes to keep a large amount of people safe on a daily basis. Overall, the research in this article is performed correctly and is very useful.
This is a picture of the State Capitol building in Downtown Atlanta, GA.
John Slemp uses this picture to show the flowers and statue in front of the building.
Getty Images, “Atlanta, Georgia State Capitol Building” Web.Last accessed February 1, 2016 http://cache1.asset-cache.net/gc/528823293-georgia-atlanta-georgia-state-capitol-gettyimages.jpg?v=1&c=IWSAsset&k=2&d=9k1%2bH8JMuk41%2bwTwiIo7zBFUKm3amZ52XAxGwQtuFcdb1nw3i1Y2Uqwq6isZXz9v
Eng. 1102 M hybrid
January 25, 2016
Reading Summary 1
“Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation Through Physical Design of the Built Environment” is an article by Sarah Schindler about how the landscape of the areas we live in are built the way they are for specific reasons that most people don’t even consider. Schindler reveals that many features of our environment are built to segregate people of different walks of life from each other in efforts to discriminate against minorities and the lower class.
For instance, Schindler mentions Robert Morris, a former builder in New York, who purposely designed low hanging bridges to prevent buses that African Americans rode on from passing through. According to Schindler, practices such as those were used as ways to prevent undesirable people from accessing places where they were unwanted. More blatant measures were taken in Atlanta where the people of the northern suburbs voted not to have the MARTA transit extend to their neighborhoods, restricting inner city passengers from taking advantages of job opportunities north of Atlanta.
Not only does Schindler explore the actual act of using architecture to segregate people but she tackles the psychological element of the practice as well. Anyone who is being discriminated against through environmental situations is usually not aware of the injustice due to the subtle nature of the practice. Whenever someone encounters a large wall or barrier it is unusual for one to consider why the wall is there, much less to suspect discrimination against his/ her race or social class. Due to that reality, discrimination in the form of architecture has been one of the most prolific forms of discrimination.
Also, another factor involved in the prominence of environmental segregation is the language of the law. It is unlawful to discriminate in any way against any group of people for any reason, however, it is difficult to prove in court that a particular feature of the environment was specifically constructed to hinder the social and/or physical progress of a group of people. There are several reasons why proving such a claim is notably difficult. First of all, most citizens have difficulty identifying who exactly is behind the architecture they feel is discriminatory. Without being able to decide who to take action against, it is not easy to hold anyone accountable. Secondly, due to the low number of individuals who present a case of such in court, there are some courts that do not see a need for judges to rule on the context of the built environment. And finally, it is not likely not the court will rule in favor of the plaintiff even if sufficient evidence is provided. In a case of a road closure in the Supreme Court case “City of Memphis v. Greene,” African Americans felt like a road was closed intentionally for the purpose of keeping them out of the predominantly white area of town. After being presented with evidence, the Court found that “the extent of the inconvenience was not great.” (Greene 1981) Rulings such as those show that cases of such are solely dependent on the interpretation of how severe the inconvenience is to the Supreme Court justices.
Schindler, Sarah. “Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation Through Physical Design of the Built Environment.” Yale Law Journal 124.6 (2015): n. pag. Yale Law Journal –. Apr. 2015. Web. 24 Jan. 2016.