Carmona, Matthew. Public places, urban spaces: the dimensions of urban design. Routledge, 2010.

In the book “Public Places Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban designs Carmona explains how public places became “public places” and also explains all the elements in urban designs. But I want focus on summarizing the section that caught my attention the most.

The section is called Changes in Urban Form. Carmona describes the beginning of urban designs as little markets. Those little markets are where all kinds of people come together to a certain place and exchange items and information. The markets quickly expanded to industrial production and then to service provision, consumption, and knowledge. And they expanded so quickly because people moved to places where all their needs and resources where. Because of certain spaces has certain things other don’t, that’s how innovation began.

Innovation climate changes, communication to person to person, spaces with different resources are  the reasons why urban designs are the way they are today.



Weisman, Leslie K. Discrimination by design: A feminist critique of the man-made environment. University of Illinois Press, 1994.


The author of Discrimination by Design: A Feminist Critique of The Man-Made Environment Leslie K. Weisman, talks about how people perceive the world and how that perception effects their lives.

People perceptions are socially learned through their environments. People’s environment gives them the outline of thinking on the world and the people in it. For example, if you are “poor”, your environment will treat as so. Society essentially tells you your place in this world and that place alters your way of thinking. There is a strong correlation between physical and social space. If one of them is low then the other will be low.

HO Chung-Hwa; Lee Tsung-Lin. International Journal of Organizational Innovation. Jul2015, Vol. 8 Issue 1, p87-102. 16p. 1 Illustration, 5 Charts. , Database: Business Source Complete
The authors Chung-Hwa, Ho and Tsung-Lin, Lee explains the relationships of creativity between architecture and visual communications. They explain in explicit details that visual communication designs means how an artist can communicate through their work without actually using any words, only replying on their “shapes” throughout their work. Architecture also relies on shapes to communicate with society.
“The design objective of visual communication is to convey ideas and emotions to the audience through creations.”
According to Chung-Hwa and Tsung-Lin the big difference in architectural and visual designs is that architectural designs have a more concrete designs than visual designs. The design must have a specific concept, like a certain location, is used for something specific, and it’s a specific to use the design. While visual is more objective and there is not just one or two concepts on its designs. These designs focuses more on people’s perspective and how they interpret the designs. And the difference between their creativity are that architects creativity comes the need to full up space and the visual design artists creativity comes from only having to communicate through only the designs.

Hough, Mark H. “Landscape Architecture on Campus.” Weblog post. The Field The Professional Landscape Architects’ Network. Landscape Architects at Duke University, 14 Apr. 2014. Web.


According to Mark H. Hough college and university campuses are obsessed with mixing urban life with their traditional landscapes and how landscaping on a campus has evolved. “Colleges and universities are most students’ first homes away from home and also where students develop their opinions and perspectives on the world” said Hough. That bonding relationship creates an important reason on how more and more campuses are establishing landscaping as a profession. Throughout the United States history universities have a long tradition in American culture. And colleges and universities want to maintain that traditional feel within their campuses while constantly adapting to the new generations and ideas as they come along.To conclude this article Hough gives examples of campuses that integrated new ideas while maintaining tradition like Duke University and University of Chicago.


John. “Gender Disparities in the Design Field.” Smashing Magazine 12 Nov. 2010: 1-2. Print.

The author separates the article into four controversial topics dealing with gender issues. The first topic is statistics- a poll to demonstrate how many web designers are male and female. 82.6% of web designers are male. The author gives this example to show how predominate men are in that field. Since men are dominate the web designing, women voices are not heard. So that means men can’t accommodate women’s needs.


The second topic is perceptions. The  author talks about how males and females are perceived throughout the world differently while doing the same thing. One example the author gives to support this idea was when 2009 Google was the talk of the web when someone noticed when you type “she invented” into the search bar, did you mean “he invented” pops up on the screen. Indirectly saying that women can’t invent anything and that only men can.

The third and fourth topics are conditioning and status quo. They both talk about how society is slowly opening up different job that are typically “masculine” to women.This article is related to the research that I am doing because if  women opinions and ideas are not heard they won’t be reflected into any work even interior designs, but if they are heard their ideas and opinions will be reflected.

Jones, RM, et al. “Bedroom Design And Decoration: Gender Differences In Preference And Activity.” Adolescence 42.167 (2007): 539-553 15p. CINAHL Plus with Full Text. Web. 24 Feb. 2016.

The authors of this academic journal talks about different things dealing with perspectives of gender roles and how people develop those ideas. But I will elaborating on how people use their perspectives on gender towards their kids and the decisions they make for their kids bedrooms.

The authors explains how people perceptions of everything in the world comes from family, friends, social beliefs and own beliefs. Even the smallest thing like what colors boys/girls should and should not wear comes from those influences. Gender differences starts early in a child’s life. The boys will have car toys, building toys, and sport equipment in their bedrooms.The girls will have dolls, dollhouses, and cooking equipment in theirs. The children are too young to pick the things they want in their rooms so their parents take on the responsibility to pick for them. But after a certain age they will be able to decide what they like and don’t like in their rooms.Their parents and friends generally have a great impact on what the child consider acceptable and what’s not. But ultimately what the child wants and likes is up to them.

Sturm, Susan. “Designing the architecture for integrating accommodation: an institutionalist commentary.” U. Pa. L. Rev. PENNumbra 157 (2008): 11.

This paper is a response to Elizabeth F. Emens, Integrating Accommodation,156 U.PA.L.REV.839 (2008). Emens explains how reshaping a normal workplace for disable workers will not only benefit the disabled, it will be beneficial to everyone else too. The author points out the main concepts of Emen’s paper which are integrating accommodate intent to benefit disabled people but the cost of it will affect everyone else in a negative way.But the benefits outweighs the costs. The author then analyzes Emens’ argument about how the courts handle the bill/decisions dealing with accommodation and employers helping disabled feel at home at work. Also, the solutions to these problems like suggesting changing legal and policy and helping shape people’s attitudes towards disabled people. The author definitely agrees with Emen’s but also throughout the paper and tries to correct/clear up some ideas of Emens’ arguments.


S. Keates, P.J. Clarks,Countering design exclusion bridging the gap between usability and accessibility Universal Access in the Information Society, 2003, Volume 2, Number 3, Page 215

In this article the essay the author discussed how the importance of having an accessible and useful design.Which helps the design to be more popular, and necessary to everyone. The author first gives an example of how a certain group of people have problems with designs and services that are not accommodated for them.The author’s argues how designing something for the largest population is the best and how breaking the traditional, standard look of a person will ensure the largest satisfaction.The essay provides a map of all the successes of using the author’s idea as well. The authors talks about the pros and cons of making sure everyone is satisfied with the interior and external designs throughout the architectural world.




The author discusses how people are  not aware of disabled people’s daily problems.To support the author’s claim,the author describes and gives examples are how certain places are not accommodated for disabled people. The author explains the interior designs improvements that will help accommodate them like different carpeting for wheelchairs, pullout shelves and accessible doors. The author lastly describes what universal designs are. Universal designs are designs that accommodate a large population/ what most people can use. The beginning of creating disabled accommodated places sometimes those places didn’t accommodate other people. And that’s when they came up with universal designs.