Carmona, Matthew. Public places, urban spaces: the dimensions of urban design. Routledge, 2010.

In the book “Public Places Urban Spaces: The Dimensions of Urban designs Carmona explains how public places became “public places” and also explains all the elements in urban designs. But I want focus on summarizing the section that caught my attention the most.

The section is called Changes in Urban Form. Carmona describes the beginning of urban designs as little markets. Those little markets are where all kinds of people come together to a certain place and exchange items and information. The markets quickly expanded to industrial production and then to service provision, consumption, and knowledge. And they expanded so quickly because people moved to places where all their needs and resources where. Because of certain spaces has certain things other don’t, that’s how innovation began.

Innovation climate changes, communication to person to person, spaces with different resources are  the reasons why urban designs are the way they are today.