The second half of Chapter 10 covers gerunds and participles. Gerunds are always used as nouns, and always end in “-ing.” Since the gerund is a noun structure, the “it” or “something” test can be used to identify it. Gerunds are also diagrammed on pedestals like the other noun structures, but the gerund is given a “step” at the top of the pedestal, something I will have to keep in mind when diagramming them. Vitto distinguishes gerunds from other structures that end in “-ing,” particularly progressive verbs and present participles. I will be looking at the examples she gives in detail to more comprehensively understand the differences.
Participles are also verb forms, but they act as adjectives to modify nouns or pronouns. Participles can move within sentences without changing meaning, like adverbs. Vitto provides examples of “dangling participle(s),” something I will have to watch out for when writing in the future. She emphasizes the role punctuation plays in determining the meaning of sentences with participles as well. When going over diagramming participles, she also exemplifies how punctuation can affect how a sentence with a participial phrase is diagrammed. Overall, I feel as if I have a decent understanding of gerunds and participles, but I will be returning to them to look them over.