In this unit, there were readings on planning instructional interventions, choosing the items that into the intervention, as well as evaluation of the intervention. Instructors and instructional designers have to work together to plan instructional interventions through lesson plans. Choosing the items and events that are used in a lesson are just as crucial to the lesson plan or the content. Evaluation is also just as crucial because it helps determine if all of the effort put into instruction was actually useful and reached the goals of the instruction. The texts read were from Cennamo and Kalk as well as Carliner and Driscoll.
Chapter 4 of Cennamo and Kalk discussed planning learning events. The chapter went over 6 events that should be included in any instructional lesson. Among these events were focusing on goals, recalling relevant prior knowledge, taking action and monitoring learning progress, presenting content knowledge, synthesizing and evaluating, extending and transferring. The book also provided examples of each event. The examples made it extremely helpful to understand what each event is. In focusing on goals, the objectives are stated and students can set their personal goals. In recalling relevant prior knowledge, the students are reminded of their prior knowledge and students can also make comparisons between what they know and the objectives. In taking action and monitoring learning progress, students are provided an opportunity to practice or apply the content and give each other feedback. This is also where the instructor can provide feedback. In presenting content knowledge, students are presented with the content and resources. This is done through the instructor supporting and organizing the learning via demonstrations or modeling. In synthesizing and evaluating, the content is summarized and there may be assessments. In extending and transferring, the students can actually use what they learned. Chapter 6 of Carliner and Driscoll covered the technological tools needed for work. The book outlined different categories of technology and what level of skill each category requires. In order for technology to be useful in an instructional or training environment, the learner must have the skill level necessary to use the technological tools. Technological tools useful for instruction can vary from personal technology to organization wide technology. Chapter 5 of Cennamo and Kalk explains the types of media that can be used in instructional and training environments. The media chosen for a lesson must be chosen carefully based on the point that the instructor is trying to get across. Personal technology is just the typically technology may be used on a daily basis like Microsoft Office and email. Design, development, and delivery software gets a little more complicated. This category includes software that may need a little training like Illustrator, Storyline, and projectors. Enterprise Software is software that is meant for broader training and organization wide technology. Chapter 4 of Carliner and Driscoll went over the guiding concepts of ADDIE. ADDIE is the basic model for instructional design. The concepts evaluate who the audience is, what needs to be learned, identifies problems in current instruction, and many other questions. Chapter 6 of Cennamo and Kalk went over evaluation. Evaluation is a crucial step in instructional design because it answers the question about whether or not an instructional intervention accomplishes the objectives of what the intervention sought to do. According to the reading, there are four major phases of evaluation; define, design, develop, and deliver. Chapter 7 of Carliner and Driscoll also covered evaluation but from a different perspective. In this reading, there are four levels of evaluation; assessing reaction, assessing learning, assessing transfer, and assessing transfer.
Chapter 4 of Cennamo and Kalk, covering planning learning events, was probably the most impactful reading from this unit. The chapter provided examples that helped to explain the many events that a lesson must include to communicate content to students. When starting a new topic, students must be introduced to the topic. They need to be assured of what the lesson will cover. This helps students get into the right mindset in order to prepare their minds for learning. Students also need to be reminded of what they already know. Chapter 6 of Carliner and Driscoll, technological tools needed for work, was also an impactful part of the unit because this describes the media in instructional design and technology. Without media, instructional design and technology would not exist. The delivery of content must be chosen and planned out carefully to ensure that the learner receives the information and practices the information that they have received. Chapter 4 of Cennamo and Kalk and Chapter 6 of Carliner and Driscoll are directly linked because the way that the content is delivered is explained in Chapter 6 of Carliner and Driscoll while Chapter 4 of Cennamo and Kalk covered where media and technological tools fit into instruction by transferring the content from the instructor to the student. After the content is delivered, students also need to practice or apply the information that they just received. This is where evaluation discussed in Chapter 6 of Cennamo and Kalk and Chapter 7 of Carliner and Driscoll. The two perspectives for evaluation are both very logical. They could both be used on their own or in combination. I am definitely going to remember Chapter 4 of Cennamo and Kalk and Chapter 6 of Carliner and Driscoll the most. Evaluation is something that all design based researchers should be able to perform on their own without the aid of reference material.
Carliner, S. & Driscoll, M. (2017). An Overview of Training and Development: Why Training Matters. United States of America; Lakewood Media Group.
Cennamo,K. & Kalk, S. (2019). Real World Instructional Design (2). New York: Routeledge.