The readings we have done over the past months, have been very helpful and inciteful to me. The processes have been illustrated in great detail. I am compiling a very useful toolkit of reference material that I can use in my daily work life. I find the lists, charts and tables very helpful.
I begin my reading reflection with Chapter Three of “Real World Instructional Design” by Katherine Cennamo and Debby Kalk. In Chapter Three, outcomes are described as desired results from the instruction and assessments are the way we measure if the results took place. Learning outcomes can be classified into five types – verbal information, intellectual skills, motor skills, attitude, and cognitive strategies. These types are based on Robert Gagne’s domain of learning. Gagne’s Nine Elements of learning are also listed in “An Overview of Training and Development, Why Training Matters by Saul Carliner and Margaret Driscoll.
When we plan learning events or activities, we must start by developing an instructional strategy. Utilizing appropriate learning theories for the program is important. There are different activities that are utilized for outcomes, activities and assessments based on the learning theories of Behaviorist, Cognitive or Constructivist.
When it comes to developing instructional strategy there are three things to consider: 1) Information needs/characteristics of the learners; 2) the intended learning outcomes and the context in which the new knowledge will be applied and 3) the context in which the learning will take place or the instruction will be delivered.
The delivery modes for instructional activities can include classroom, print, video, textbooks, computer-based, online and blended combinations. Most courses have more than one delivery mode. Learning can occur at a distance or face-to-face.
Chunking can be very helpful in not overloading the learner during the delivery of the course. A chunk is a set of topics that go together logically. If the learner has prior knowledge on the topic, the chunk can have a larger content. If there is no prior knowledge, the chunk should be smaller.
Evaluations may be formative or summative. Formative evaluations are conducted during the design and develop phase. Summative evaluations are conducted after the instruction has be finalized. Reviews of the materials can be external reviews, expert review and one-on-one reviews.
The instruction design process is a very comprehensive process. As I have learned through my readings. We started with what will be our outcomes and how will we measure them? As our process moves on, our instructional strategy must be developed. We have been given many helpful tables and lists to help us with this process. Our delivery modes must be selected to ensure the learner effectively receives the learning material. Evaluating the course or program from the beginning to end of the process is crucial.
Cenno, K. and Kalk, D. (2019) Real World Instructional Design, An Iterative Approach to Designing Learning Experiences (2nd Edition) Routledge
Carliner, S. and Driscoll, M. (2019) An Overview of Training and Development, Why Training Matters, Lakewood Media Group