Why are we required to take classes that do not pertain to our degree?


Why are we required to take classes that do not pertain to our degree? Are core curriculum classes effective or are these classes another way for colleges and Universities to receive more money?  This question is asked more often as students gain interest in attending college. Having just finished high school and completing English, Math, History, and the list goes on, what would be the reason to start over? These are legitimate questions, and although I am not a fan and I feel as though these classes are redundant, the answers I found while doing my research, these classes serve a purpose. Hopefully, my research will give insight into the reasoning behind it.

 The average person entering college has many emotions and those emotions range from anxiousness to anxiety, but nevertheless, they are excited to begin the learning. They take those first steps onto the campus, eager to meet friends and begin studying, so that their careers can begin. However, this is not what is going to happen during the first year. The core curriculum rears its head and delays the start of those classes that many are so ready to delve into. When a student chooses a major that they wish to pursue, they see themselves selecting classes that fall under the scope of their degree. When their plans are rerouted, they become disappointed and sometimes discouraged.  Most college students believe that courses unrelated to their major are a complete waste of time and considered busy work. Their concerns are valid, but research shows that core classes are common and play more of a significant role than students are aware of.        

 According to the University system of Georgia “General Education courses are designed to teach diverse skills that every person should master, in order to lead a productive life, became a knowledgeable citizen and communicate ideas as a useful member of society, regardless of their chosen course of study”.  Research shows that general education courses are not problems within themselves, but the lack of information given to students about why they are required to take them brings about the conversation. English, Perspectives, Psychology and College Algebra fall under Core classes or sometimes referred to as general Education courses. These classes are required to be completed and passed, which determines a student’s ability to progress to the next phase in your specific major. These specific classes as do all others, has a certain number of credits associated with them and are included in the total number needed to receive a degree.

There are different phases within the Core curriculum and those are Pure distribution, pure integrative. The Pure distribution curriculum is that of which colleges most commonly use, and that most are familiar with. These are those that schools require before a student can move forward. Requirements such as two Science, two writing and two math courses. The pure integrative curriculum puts more emphasis on how the student will be able to use this knowledge and or skills in different areas of life. There are colleges that use one of the curriculums and then there are colleges that use both within their school to give the students more of an advantage. Research shows that students respond better to the pure integrative curriculum because it is not as restrictive. It allows the students to think beyond the present and focus more on the future and how they can become a beneficial participant.

 Recent studies have shown us that the majority of freshman entering college need to revisit courses they completed their last year in high school. This is not done as a form of punishment but because history has indicated that some were not correctly prepared in their Senior year of high school. Due to time constraints placed on academics in high school, the courses are generally taught but not to the point that a true foundation was built. Having the students polish up on past subjects and introduce them to new subjects, gives them the chance to use the new skills in relation to courses that pertain to their major. The process can be tedious and sometimes frustrating but when students realize that taking classes such as Psychology, economics and even Liberal Arts can assist them in other aspects of learning, it might make the process easier.

 In Eliza Macknight’s explanation on why General education courses are beneficial, she states that “GenEd classes are an effective way to force students to expose themselves to subjects they might not be familiar with”. (Macknight(par.3) Being required to enroll in General education classes offers students the opportunity to tap into an area of their brain that makes them think outside the box. Not confine themselves into thinking that there is only one aspect of a certain career based on the degree they are pursuing. These classes have a increased probability of expanding their aerial view of what life has to offer.  Macknight also believes that having the chance to take these courses, can assist students in uncovering or rediscovering interests that were put on hold while searching for a career path. Macknight also states that “ Gen Eds serve as a gateway to becoming a well-rounded individual and enlightened citizen”.  Macknight explores the option of undeclared majors and begins the discussion on how using this time to take classes that fall under GenEd can be helpful in this instance as well. Although some students want to enter college straight out of high school, some are unsure what career they wish to pursue. Macknight suggest using this time to get your feet wet and see what subjects interest you.  This statement holds truth in my opinion because being introduced to information that you may not have been privy too, can alter or even change how you see you future unfolding.


 In Apurva Shrestha explanation, she argues against General Education. The issue is not whether taking these classes is right or wrong because circumstances are different. The issue becomes should it be mandatory for all students and if so, why? Apurva feels as though general education classes should not be mandatory for college students, and that they should only be available to those students wanting or based on need. By based on need meaning that maybe they did not do well on the college entrance course or for those students who feel they could benefit from a refresher course. She is also one that believes that these courses are implemented for the college and Universities financial gain.  After researching, I found that many students based on a poll, had the same feelings. Shrestha’s reasoning behind this is that regardless of the type of business many view institutions for higher learning to be, it still falls under the business category, and money is needed to run a business. Shrestha makes an interesting point that challenges those who feel these classes are needed. Those who are pro general education classes state their reasons to be that taking these classes, has the ability, to develop a well- rounded student and or expose them to areas that they would not otherwise visit. Shrestha’s rebuttal is that how would an institution know who is well-rounded and who is not. How do you identify those who have been exposed to different cultures and or different environments based on a college application? This is the main reason why Shrestha feels that general classes should not be mandatory. The answer to these questions seemed to be based on assumptions and not facts.

Shrestha argues that there is a great need for many professions and prolonging careers of many just for what some see as financial gain is doing a disservice. Her hesitancy is not due to the disbelief that these classes do not enhance our society, Shrestha just has the belief that these classes should not be an intricate part of a college or Universities curriculum. College for many is already a rigorous and at times an overwhelming experience. Whether a student is pursuing an Associate or Bachelor’s degree, these years are tedious and adding classes that during many times are not necessary, just adds more stress and less time to retake if needed.

In conclusion, college is one of the biggest investments a person will make, and time is money. Yes, there may be a need and even a want by students to take advantage of these opportunities, but should every student be grouped under the same umbrella? Should those students that already have financial hardships be made to incur other expenses based on what an institution feels is appropriate? Again, I do not believe those that are against taking mandatory general education courses feel this way with malice intent. I believe that it is because they are unable to truly decipher if the reasoning behind it is really to benefit the student or institution. Unless it is based on a need or want by the student, many want to forgo sitting through these classes.  I am totally for a student needing extra help, taking the necessary steps to being successful and making sure they are comfortable with the major they decide on. Not having the option to opt out may start to deter individuals from enrolling in college. They already feel as though it is a long process and now having to take classes that will not have an real bearings on whether they obtain a job or not seems irrelevant.



                                                                                      Words Cited


Apurva Shrestha & Eliza Macknight. (2018). Are general education courses necessary?. General Education systems should not be mandatory. BreezeJmu.org



Study.com. (2003-2021). What are General Education Courses?


Sydney’s Research Paper

Sydney Davis

ENGL 1102

Professor Rebecca Weaver


Research paper on Will virtual learning takeover in person classes?

Over years computers and other electronics have improved and increased in today’s world in many aspects. People don’t use electronics anymore for just leisure they are starting to use it even more for business, school and much more! The world as of today depends on electronics more than anything! For example, during this Covid pandemic society has relied on electronics to get through everything especially when it comes to school for students. It helped students and teachers to be able to still learn and teach while doing social distancing. With change it can be a pro and a con, but will Virtual learning outcome be a pro or con?

Virtual learning has increased comfortability and convenience in classrooms now. Imagine the students that are too shy to ask a question in front of the class , now they won’t have to because one they can easily message their professor about any questions that they have or even because their classmates aren’t in the same space as them so it isn’t all eyes on them. A major benefit is that Nikki Eye pointed out that “students can be logged in from anywhere in the world.” (Eye, 1) Students can log on their phones to check grades and assignments at one easy touch! With every benefit it’s always a downfall somewhere around, because with convenience it can also become complicated also.  What if a student has bad Wi-Fi or in a dead zone and there is an assignment due, what does the student do then? Most of the time it’s either a late grade which takes point away from the assignment or even just plain out a fail. Then again that’s where comfortability comes in place, where students can ask their professor for more time because of their situation with Wi-Fi. It’s easier for students to ask questions through email then face to face, less intimidating.

What we also must take in consideration is that with comfortability it takes away from teachers and students socializing with one another. How do you build up a relation with your classmate when it’s time to do a group project or how do you build a relationship with your teacher when you need more time on a project? Well Ashley Brooks pointed put a good point that “It’s not ideal for a student to sit alone with their computer throughout their entire degree program” (Brooks. 1) Because there are no interactions of no sort it makes the student discouraged. Brooks also makes a point to make online class better is to “I recommend making an extra effort to get to know your digital classmates. You could organize a group video hangout and do icebreakers or facilitate a conversation.”” (Brooks, 1) Is it different yes, but it can make virtual learning ten times better. But then again you have camera phones that do video calls which can build relation, but does it take away from the relationship part that you should have in class settings? It’s a fifty percent that video relations can ease some students into being interactive and then it can also hurt a students social interaction also.

If higher education was fully virtual learning it would take away the experience of college life on campus. It would be cheaper in some aspect, but it would break the tradition that most students look forward to when graduating college. Without having a social life in school, it can possibly hurt the student’s academics which “social isolation shows up as a main reason for students to withdraw from their studies.” (Eye, Page 1). Academics are a big part of school, but students look for a social interaction also, it makes school fun for students but without that it’s just boring! Imagine teachers trying to make class assignments fun through virtual learning and then imagine teachers doing a fun assignment in person class, it’s a major difference and every class needs that social interaction.

A big consideration that we must take in consideration is students with learning disabilities. It’s already an obstacle for those students to learn in class, so to put them on virtual could be very hard. In a study students were asked how their attention level was while doing virtual learning and most said “they were distractible and had difficulty focusing on what they were doing” (N. Hollins, A. R. Foley,612) Imagine students that have ADHD who have trouble staying focus and now they are forced to do virtual learning which is low support for them. For professors it can be hard because how do they get the attentions of their students who need it the most through virtual? In some aspect’s students will get distracted by just a color or too much words on a computer screen, which it can make pretty hard for a student to focus. Virtually it would be a failure for any student to strive.

It’s not impossible for complete virtual learning, but it can be if all students from aspects aren’t accommodated. When thinking virtual learning you must take a lot of things into consideration like, finances, learning disabilities, dead zones, and social interactions. It is a long way to go before learning will ever be fully virtual. 


Annotated Bibliography


Wang, Y., & Decker, J. (2014). Can virtual schools thrive in the real world? TechTrends: Linking Research & Practice to Improve Learning, 58(6), 57–62. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11528-014-0804-z

Hollins, Nancy, and Alan Foley. “The Experiences of Students with Learning Disabilities in a Higher Education Virtual Campus.” Educational Technology Research & Development, vol. 61, no. 4, Aug. 2013, pp. 607–624. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1007/s11423-013-9302-9.

eye, nikki. “Online Learning in the Time of COVID-19: What Are the Pros and Cons?” Scholarship America, 4 Aug. 2020, scholarshipamerica.org/blog/online-learning-in-the-time-of-covid-19-pros-and-cons/.

Brooks, A. (2019, January 14). Breaking down the pros and cons of online classes. Retrieved April 27, 2021, from https://www.rasmussen.edu/student-experience/college-life/pros-and-cons-online-classes/










Research Paper

Research Project – English 1102 

Mounica Katragadda 

Dr. Rebecca Weaver 

April 27, 2021 


In recent years, pursuing college education has become more prominent within the United States. As more jobs in the US require high levels of educational training, more first-generation students have started attending prestigious universities. However, applying and being accepted to a university is only half the battle. Once a first-generation student is accepted, they now must fight against barriers on their path such as financial aid, orientation, and college preparation. After these challenges, more follow. Now students must be equipped with the necessary resources and support in order to pass classes and participate in extracurricular such as personal computers and transportation. In the article, “Taking My Parents to College”, Jennine Capó Crucet describes how in her first English class, she was completely overwhelmed and unprepared for the course’s content and difficulty, unlike many of her classmates (Crucet, 2015)While her parents tried to help, they were unfamiliar with the college coursework and environment, thus providing inadequate familial support. Additionally, Crucet lacked knowledge and resources as to what to do next as well. It is important to understand what resources and support first-generation students need in order to prepare them for higher education at the same level as their classmates.  

In the classroom, first-generation students are often disadvantaged as well. In “Taking My Parents to College”, we saw Crucet struggle with her English class, a common experience for many first-generation students (Crucet, 2015). Since parents of these students have never attended college in the US, many first-generation students enter college with a misleading and inaccurate perspective of college classes. Many are unaware of the vast differences between college and high school classes, such as much longer hours of studying and readings required and much more outside of class time required to self-learn and work on projects. Without proper resources, such as specific counseling for these students, they are often taken by surprise their freshmen year. Additionally, since many first-generation students are low-income, they often work part-time or full-time jobs to help pay for college tuition. Thus, they have less personal time outside of class hours to work on coursework. This causes first-generation students to fall behind in their academics compared to their peers. Furthermore, many first-generation students also happen to be people of color who would benefit from a “culturally responsive and inclusive teaching and learning frameworks in college classrooms” (Delima, 2019). Since many first-generation students lack familial support due to the family’s unfamiliarity with college courses, first-generation students would benefit from higher faculty support and interaction. This includes spending more time with these students in the classroom and teaching them coursework differently from the long, required readings which use too much unavailable personal time. Some examples of this type of learning include a “physics professor teaching a lesson about cooking and turning raw ingredients into cooked foods” to demonstrate the physics concept of thermodynamics (Delima, 2019). Or a professor of an advanced writing course who engages in action research, in which they ask, “students collect artifacts and data from their own home communities in order to write anthologies stemming from their own personal lives” (Delima, 2019). This type of interactive and inclusive teaching would allow first-generation college students to have a strong support beamsimilar to the one many other students receive from their families, putting first-generation college students at the same playing field as their peers. 

As first-generation college students look to prepare for jobs and graduate schools after undergraduate studies, they must be enabled to compete with their classmates in order to obtain internships, leadership positions, and volunteering hours. These help build students resumes. However, not all students come into college equipped with the knowledge or resources to do this, especially first-generation college students. While students who were aware of these necessary extracurriculars come to college prepared with transportation, technology, and personal tutors for exams such as the MCAT and LSAT. Many college students buy new i-pads and computers in order to be better prepared for college classes and for universities that allow it, even bring their own cars to volunteer at hospitals or intern at local companies. However, this isn’t an option for many first-generation college students who don’t know to and can’t afford to bring the same personal resources to university. One study confirmed that the digital divide is an increasing problem in universities, specifically minority serving institutions where students do not come to college with the technology skills needed for academic success” (Buzzetto-Hollywood et al., 2018). This not only causes them to have a late start when it comes to looking for these internship opportunities, but also prevents them from being able to obtain them at all. Additionally, for careers that require even further education after undergraduate studies, such as doctors and lawyers, it is difficult for first-generation college students to meet the necessary requirements for graduate school due to their lack of resources and connections. Unlike students whose parents or relatives have already gone to college and graduate school, first-generation college students have nobody to provide them with insight on how to successfully prepare to take exams such as the MCAT and LSAT or apply to graduate schools. According to the American Psychological Association, this unpreparedness and feeling of being “not enough” causes first-generation college students more likely to leave college without a credential after 3 years of enrollment, and 6 years after postsecondary entry, fewer remain enrolled compared to continuing-generation peers and nearly 90% fail to graduate” (McCallen, 2020). In order to minimize these consequences, universities need to provide better and more affordable resources for first-generation students. 

The lack of personal resources and support available for first-generation college students places them at a lower playing field than their peers, requiring them to work harder for the same results as their classmatesIt is clear that first-generation students are in need of better structural support, access to technology and transportation, and career finding aid. Universities should heed more attention to their first-generation college students in order for to make them feel more supported and heard in higher education.  



Works Cited 


Buzzetto-Hollywood, N., Hwei Wang, Elobeid, M., & Elobaid, M. (2018). Addressing Information Literacy and the Digital Divide in Higher Education. Interdisciplinary Journal of E-Learning & Learning Objects14, 77–93. https://doi.org/10.28945/4029 

Crucet, J. C. (2015, August 22). Opinion: Taking My Parents to College (Published 2015). Opinion | Taking My Parents to College – The New York Times. https://nyti.ms/1JcvKZ6. 

Delima, D. G. (2019). Making a Case for a Funds of Knowledge Approach to Teaching and Learning for First-Generation College Students. College Teaching67(4), 205–209. https://doi.org/10.1080/87567555.2019.1630355 

McCallen, L. S., & Johnson, H. L. (2020). The role of institutional agents in promoting higher education success among first-generation college students at a public urban university. Journal of Diversity in Higher Education13(4), 320–332. https://doi.org/10.1037/dhe0000143 

MP4: How does getting a master’s degree better your chances in the work field?

Esohe Uhuangho

Dr. Weaver

English 1102 Section 400

27 April 2021

                                                             MP4 Research Paper:

While master’s degrees are not a necessity for job acquisition or most career paths, they provide sufficient conditions that place candidates looking for jobs at a higher competitive advantage or position over other candidates with lesser educational qualifications. Additionally, employers of labor often use these qualifications as a critical success criterion for candidates seeking employment. But is the cost of a master’s degree worth the payoff in terms of getting employed? In the class reading “I Was a Low-Income College Student. Classes Weren’t the Hard Part” by Anthony Abraham Jack, he says, “We like to think that landing a coveted college spot is a golden ticket for students from disadvantaged backgrounds. We think less critically about what happens next.” This relates to my topic in the sense that after college being disadvantaged doesn’t just go away. Although students may make their way through college on loans, or scholarships, like the author, it’s still a struggle. If a disadvantaged student decided they wanted to go back to school to get better pay they would have to make sure that it would be worth it and if it, wasn’t they would just end up with debt and not enough income to pay it off.

There are a lot of reasons someone could go back to get their masters including more opportunities, advancement in your career, and even research but the widely known reason is for higher pay. According to The Fiscal Tiger, a master’s degree can cost $30,000 to $120,000 total. Pay raises after getting a master’s degree depending on your career field. In careers in engineering and business, a master’s degree can increase their salary up to $80,000. According to the Bureau Labor of Statistics in 2012-2013 people with business jobs saw a 36-89 percent increase in their salaries after earning a master’s degree. In careers like psychology, master’s degrees only have a pay raise if they have added experience in the field, and in STEM fields, master’s degrees are basically required to get a well-paying job in the field. The price of a master’s degree depends on what school you’re going to, the location, and what degree you’re pursuing. Public institutions are usually less costly compared to private institutions.

Cost alone could be a deciding factor for whether a person would want to go back to graduate school. Sometimes the pay raises from getting a master’s degree aren’t enough to cover the cost of going to school and a lot of people end up in debt. According to The Washington Post, the average graduate borrowed $57,600 for a graduate degree in 2012. Just like pay raises and prices of master’s school, Graduate degree debt depends on the type of degree you get. The average MBA debt is $66,300, Law school debt is $145,550, Medical school debt is $201,490, and Dental school debt is $292,169.



Works Cited:

Cromwelle, Joy. “Is a Masters Degree Worth It? [2021 Ultimate Guide].” MyDegreeGuide.com, 5 Mar. 2021, www.mydegreeguide.com/college-worth/masters-degree-worth-it/.

Marte, Jonnelle. “Is Graduate School Worth the Cost? Here’s How to Know.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 3 May 2019, www.washingtonpost.com/news/get-there/wp/2014/12/02/is-graduate-school-worth-the-cost-heres-how-to-know/.

StudentJob UK. “Is Pursuing a Master’s Degree Really Worth It?: StudentJ…” StudentJob UK, www.studentjob.co.uk/blog/1853-is-pursuing-a-master-s-degree-really-worth-it.

Mayer, Cole. “Getting A Master’s Degree: Is It Worth the Cost?: Fiscal Tiger.” Fiscal Tiger | Better Information. Better Finances. Better You., 28 Feb. 2019, www.fiscaltiger.com/is-it-worth-getting-masters-degree/.


Major Project #4: The Struggles of Adapting to Online Learning Amidst a Global Pandemic

Dagny Haim

Professor Weaver

English 1102 Section 330

27 April 2021

Why has online learning been a struggle for students to adapt to during COVID-19?


The development of COVID-19 across the world has caused widespread panic amongst students and teachers. Many were scrambling to transition to online learning as quickly as possible, which caused a lot of stress for education everywhere. With online learning, a lot more independence and self-motivation became necessary for students to get their work done. The days of being monitored by teachers and communicating closely with peers were over, at least for a period of time. 


Over a year ago, the CoronaVirus pandemic initiated a worldwide shutdown, which included the shutdown of educational institutions. Eventually, schools and colleges were able to swiftly change their curriculum to fit a virtual learning experience. With resources like Zoom, a group video call service, teachers were able to adapt their lectures to an online platform. International web companies started to offer free services for education purposes, according to the article, “The COVID-19 pandemic has changed education forever. This is how.” It also shows a graph of worldwide school closures from February 2020 to March 2020, featuring 1.38 billion closures at the end of March. Authors Cathy Li and Farah Lalani say that “[w]hile some believe that the unplanned and rapid move to online learning – with no training, insufficient bandwidth, and little preparation – will result in a poor user experience that is unconducive to sustained growth, others believe that a new hybrid model of education will emerge, with significant benefits” (Li and Lalani). They discuss the differing opinions on how a rapid switch to online learning could affect the future of education. It could negatively affect an entire year’s worth of education for those in school, but it could also jumpstart an entirely new format of learning online. After mentioning the struggles of online learning for those who do not have reliable access to technology, they say that “[s]ome research shows that on average, students retain 25-60% more material when learning online compared to only 8-10% in a classroom. This is mostly due to the students being able to learn faster online; e-learning requires 40-60% less time to learn than in a traditional classroom setting” (Li and Lalani). When students are allowed to work and learn at their own pace, there is significant improvement in grades and material retainment. 

A different article that disputes Li and Lalani’s conclusion that students are able to learn better online is “Students are falling behind in online school. Where’s the COVID-19 ‘disaster plan’ to catch them up?” The article starts by telling the story of a 14 year-old freshman named Ruby, who is struggling to motivate herself to stay onboard with e-learning. Author Erin Richards explains that “[v]irtual learning might be keeping Ruby, 14, and her family safer during a public health crisis. But it has made it exponentially harder for her to stay motivated and learn. Her online classes are lecture-heavy, repetitive and devoid of student conversation” (Richards). Being a high school freshman is notoriously difficult as it is, but adding a new layer of an entirely new change to the way students are learning sounds outstandingly stressful. The article states that about half of students in the United States are still only attending online classes (Richards). Richards reinforces the topic of under-privileged schools mentioned in the previous article when she says that “[t]he consequences are most dire for low-income and minority children, who are more likely to be learning remotely and less likely to have appropriate technology and home environments for independent study compared with their wealthier peers. Children with disabilities and those learning English have particularly struggled in the absence of in-class instruction” (Richards). On average, students might be able to handle the stressors of learning online, but there are obviously a few stragglers, as pointed out in this article. 

A research study conducted by Georgia State University professors came to a similar conclusion about how COVID-19 has impacted education in today’s world. Most articles about the changes in education in 2020 featured more information about grade schools, but this research study broadens a reader’s perspective on how CoronaVirus has affected all academic levels. Once again, this study is also keen on reiterating the unfortunate fact that not all students have reliable access to technology by saying that “[t]he best tools can be in place, but without equitable access by all students to the tools, adequate preparation time and training for faculty, and the adaption of existing curricula, or the development of brand-new course syllabi, it will be difficult to replicate the in-person learning experience, online” (Armstrong-Mensah, et al.). Going further into the study, the researchers explain their scientific process of gathering information on GSU’s student body. According to their tables, one hundred percent of students they interviewed had some sort of access to technology, which made their transition to e-learning much easier. The study also mentions resources that Georgia State has offered to students during these difficult times, including wifi hot-spots and pre-recorded lecture capabilities. Another statistic deemed important by the study was that thirty percent of students preferred synchronous learning, because it allowed direct communication with their instructor and peers. On the other hand, the transition to online learning made the academic workload more strenuous for sixty percent of students. Contrasting to the second article, GSU’s study states that a little over half of interviewed students said they were able to stay motivated for their online classes (Armstrong-Mensah, et al.). 


There are many differing opinions on how COVID-19 has affected the transition to online learning. Some believe that the development of remote education can allow for more technologically advanced education services in the future, which could make things easier for both teachers and students. On the other hand, students who had to learn how to adapt to e-learning may struggle with motivation for extended periods of time, which can affect their futures.

Works Cited

Armstrong-Mensah, Elizabeth, et al. “COVID-19 and Distance Learning: Effects on Georgia 

State University School of Public Health Students.” Frontiers In Public Health, Georgia 

State University, 18 Aug. 2020, www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpubh.2020.


Li, Cathy, and Farah Lalani. “The COVID-19 Pandemic Has Changed Education Forever. This Is 

How.” World Economic Forum, 29 Apr. 2020, www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/ 


Richards, Erin. “Students Are Falling behind in Online School. Where’s the COVID-19 ‘Disaster 

Plan’ to Catch Them up?” USA Today, Gannett Satellite Information Network, 13 Dec. 

2020, www.usatoday.com/in-depth/news/education/2020/12/13/covid-online- 


Research Project: Humor in Classrooms

Nicole Berry

English Com, Section 330, Dr. Weaver

MajorPjct4 Assignment


College Instructors believe that students should learn in a solemn classroom. In a solemn classroom, students undergo eight hours of a strict and quiet environment. This is critical for students to engage in a strict and dull classroom. Instructors staying within the traditional atmosphere of a classroom cause harm. To adapt to these ongoing demands, students must develop coping strategies. One way to engage students in the classroom is by incorporating humor.

Humor serves as a language that engages and distresses students. It’s a tool for instructors to ease student learning. In the classroom teaching humor whether good or bad instructor can use humor. In ways, the instructor and students can perceive information and understand one another. Humor reinforces students other than break down the traditional method.

 Students undergo many responsibilities in their early adolescence. These changes are crucial to adolescent growth. These necessary changes conflict with the student’s ability to handles demands from school. As well as the social demands from peers, teacher, worker relate, and family. These roles are vital to society and so is the physical and mental health of a student. Students undergo a great amount of pressure in and out of school, and stress can lead to mental disorders such as anxiety and depression. Humor is a major psychological tool that can help students cope with stress, enhance their sense of well-being, boost self-image, self-esteem, self-confidence, as well as alleviate anxiety and depression (Check, 1997). A student’s response to this everchanging world could make or break the student. For students to optimize stress a coping mechanized should be developed.

  Humor can entail itself in serious topics. Discussion of the social dynamic that surrounds racism, sexism, and or homophobic jokes. This can engage students in discussion topics such as social justice. Instructors can discuss the issue in a serious tone with a flair of humor. College instructors often treat courses as something apart from the real world. Real-world problems graduate students, women, students of color, and young scholar’s encounter. Providing a strong pedagogical style of humor can provoke students to question society. If we accept that “clowning is not about entertaining an audience of spectators,” as Laurel Butler claims, but rather about “relinquishing one’s knowledge, certainties, and reliance on conventional symbols and cultural codes,” then the practices of clowning would seem to align with the goals of teaching (Butler 2017).

 The definition of humor is beyond the class clown. Rather a cultural language that breaks down barriers. It reviles discomfort in a social setting and difficult topics on issues. In countries, like Pakistan instructors are using the traditional, old method to educate. This old method has come to an end as new methods are emerging its way into Pakistan. Researchers in Pakistan researched to study the effect of humor. The study called the Psychometric Properties of the Scales survey involved 100 students.

 The main aim of this study is to investigate the different effects of humor on participants. Studies have shown that students in Pakistan engaged in subjects. In the study, there was a positive correlation between students and teachers. Students reported being motivated, less anxiety, and class engagement. Humor as a single continuous predictor explained almost 50% of the variance in overall teaching effectiveness (Shahid, Ifra, Ghazal 2019). Students also reported their favorite instructors created a fun environment. Teachers who used humor were significantly rated higher, than those who did not, on motivation, anxiety reduction, class engagement; thought stimulation, fostering positive student teacher relationship, and overall teaching effectiveness (Shahid, Ifra, Ghazal 2019). Humor has the power to provide a stress-free environment in which students share ideas.

Humor types various from environmental factors that affect the student’s response to life. Humor is influence by family, peers, media, and school. The influence of the classroom affects students’ motivation to study and complete assignments. Instructors are role models that should moderate humor rather than offend students. The results from Wentzel’s (2002) study of sixth graders indicate that the teacher’s modeling of motivation toward schoolwork explained significant amounts of the variance in students ‘social behavior at school (Wentzel’s 2002).

 Formal education has become less valuable. Students’ lack of interest often due to boredom and strict instructors. Students’ lack of interest is the amount of demand that leads to stress. The amount of stress that sometimes declines students’ focus and interest. When students identify a good instructor, many notice the sense of humor. Enthusiastic instructors spend time thinking about ways to present course information in creative, interesting, and positive ways that will be memorable for students in many years to come (Pollak and Freda, 1997).  Humor is a social and cognitive benefit that engages students. Instructors are more likely to create serious classrooms with a flair of humor. Overall, humor is an appreciated teaching tool for college instructors, and is an integral component for student learning if instructors are using it appropriately, constructively, and in moderation (Lei, Jillian, Kristen 2010).



Shahid, Ifra, and Saima Ghazal. “Humor as a tool to Teaching Effectiveness.” Journal of Behavioral Sciences 29.1 (2019).

Lei, Simon A., Jillian L. Cohen, and Kristen M. Russler. “Humor on learning in the college classroom: Evaluating benefits and drawbacks from instructors’ perspectives.” Journal of instructional Psychology 37.4 (2010): 326-332.

Chiang, Yi-Chen, Chun-Yang Lee, and Hong-Huei Wang. “Effects of classroom humor climate and acceptance of humor messages on adolescents’ expressions of humor.” Child & Youth Care Forum. Vol. 45. No. 4. Springer US, 2016.

Pozsonyi, Kriszta, and Seth Soulstein. “Classroom clowning: Teaching (with) humor in the media classroom.” JCMS: Journal of Cinema and Media Studies 58.3 (2019): 148-154.

Laurel Butler, “‘Everything Seemed New’: Clown as Embodied Critical Pedagogy,” Theatre Topics 22, no. 1 (2012): 71

Check, J. (1997). Humor in education. Physical Educator, 54(3), 165-167

Wentzel, K. R. (2002). Are effective teachers like good parents? Teaching styles and student adjustment in early adolescence. Child Development, 73, 287–301

Pollak, J., & Freda, P. (1997). Humor, learning, and socialization in middle level classrooms. Clearing House, 70(4), 176-179

Research Project: The Switch to Asynchronous Learning

            Recently, college students got a glimpse of online school due to the pandemic. The trend of asynchronous online school has already been growing in recent years but came to an unexpected climax throughout the 2020-2021 school year. Of course, due to the pandemic, learning online was not necessarily a choice for a lot of students. It is important to talk about this topic because going forward, more students will choose asynchronous online college considering the many benefits including reduced cost and more flexibility.  

            A major benefit of online college is the reduced total cost. Not only is tuition cheaper, but also take into account the immense cost of living, food, textbooks, transportation, etc. College is costly and not everyone can manage to pay for it. Recent statistics from the US Federal Reserve show that there are “44.7 million Americans with student loan debt” (Student Loan Hero). Online college provides students with the opportunity to receive a degree and education without having to spend a substantial amount that leads to student debt. Many students rule out online school because they suppose they won’t receive a valuable education, but in reality, according to the article Is Attending College Online Cheaper Than Traditional College written by staff members on Best Value Schools website, there’s “really no correlation between the costs of a degree and quality of education (Best Value Schools).” The quality of education depends on the student’s determination and how much work they’re willing to put in. 

            According to US News, the availability of financial aid for online college varies. This could potentially be a drawback for some, but luckily Emma Kerr, author of the article What You’ll Pay for an Online Bachelor’s Degree,” emphasizes how online colleges have been “adding institutional aid in recent years, even creating scholarships specifically for online students” (Kerr). According to U.S. News and World Report, an online bachelor’s degree from a private college costs $488 per online credit hour, while also charging $1,240 per credit for on-campus (two and a half times as much). The most inexpensive route would be to take classes at an exclusively online program. Brandon Swenson wrote the article “Online College Tuition Comparisions: Online vs. In-Person” back in November to contrast the tuition costs for different learning styles. Schools solely offering online courses have fewer expenses because, as Swenson says, they require fewer buildings to operate, and do not employ nearly as many staff members that traditional colleges rely on” (Swenson). These less expensive tuition costs result in saving thousands of dollars. Although the amount of money you save depends on what college you are enrolled in, online college is still cheaper than traditional facetoface learning. 

           A significant perk of asynchronous online college is the additional flexibility. Recent studies from the US Department of Converse show that approximately 80% of parttime college students are employed. Carrying a workload on top of classes leaves students with limited time to complete assignments and to study. The article “What the Shift to Virtual Learning Could Mean for the Future of Higher Ed” written by Vijay Govindarajan and Anup Srivatsa goes in depth about how online college could affect not only students, but colleges as well. Online college allows students to learn and work “at their own pace and place” (Govindarajan and Srivastava). Each and every student has their own unique capacities and  asynchronous online classes allow students to construct their learning around what works best for them. For example, some students work better later in the day and with an asynchronous online schoolthey can do their work when it best suits them. This flexibility ultimately leads to preserving information better and creating greater results.  


Link for the statistics of employed students: 



            Traditional faceto-face college classes often move at a fast pace, leading students to quickly shift into new topics before fully comprehending the previous ones. This adds levels of stress to students and according to U.S. News, people ages 18 through 23 reported education as their most significant source of stress” (Kerr). During the article “Stress in College Students: What to Know,” Kerr goes on to renounce the effects of stress by saying how heightened chronic stress can become unhealthy and lead to serious long-term health and social consequences” (Kerr). Online college permits students to grasp concepts at their own pace, which provides the student with a more fully comprehensive understanding of a topic. Allowing students to work at their own pace essentially leaves students with an enhanced understanding, less stress (aka healthier), and improved grades.  

            Due to the pandemic, students everywhere have received a taste of what online school, specifically college, feels likeMoving forward, the number of students enrolled in asynchronous online college will increase due to the benefits in both cost and flexibility. Online college primarily benefits students with busy schedules and students who are not willing to spend a vast amount of money. Some students prefer remote learning while others do not. It is not for everyone. Although many students are eager to return face to face after the pandemic, many students have also found a liking for remote learning. Students got a sample of what online school is like this past 2020-2021 school year. They were “forced” into an online learning style because of the pandemic, but this introduced many to a new learning style that better fits their needs and a style that they prefer.  




Works Cited 

Govindarajan, V., & Srivastava, A. (2021, February 01). What the shift to virtual learning could mean for the future of higher ed. Retrieved April 27, 2021, from https://hbr.org/2020/03/what-the-shift-to-virtual-learning-could-mean-for-the-future-of-higher-ed# 

Is attending college online cheaper than traditional college? (2021, April 09). Retrieved April 27, 2021, from https://www.bestvalueschools.com/faq/is-attending-college-online-cheaper-than-attending-a-traditional-college/ 

Kerr, E. (2020, January 14). What you’ll pay for an online bachelor’s degree. Retrieved April 27, 2021, from https://www.usnews.com/higher-education/online-education/articles/what-youll-pay-for-an-online-bachelors-degree 

Kerr, E. (2020, October 26). Stress in college students: What to know. Retrieved April 27, 2021, from https://www.usnews.com/education/best-colleges/articles/stress-in-college-students-what-to-know 

Swenson, B. (2020, November 19). Online college tuition comparison: Online vs. in-person. Retrieved April 27, 2021, from https://www.grantham.edu/blog/online-college-tuition-comparison-online-vs-in-person/ 

U.S. student loan debt statistics for 2021. (2021, January 27). Retrieved April 27, 2021, from https://studentloanhero.com/student-loan-debt-statistics/#:~:text=The%20most%20recent%20data%20indicate,delinquent%20or%20are%20in%20default. 






Research Project: Schools and Programs design for first-generation students.

Thomas Munoz Vasquez

English Composition II

Research Project 


First-generation students are considered to be those who don’t have parents with any type of higher education, “About 20 percent of all undergraduate students in colleges and universities around the United States were first-generation college students in 2015(Accredited Schools Online)”.  The amount of first-generation students attending college is significant. Their experience might be overwhelming for some of these students, making us question the schools and programs that serve first-generation students to help them succeed in college.

There are various universities for first-generation college students; they provide different options for the careers these students would like to specialize in. In the article “The best colleges for first-generation college students” provide us with a bit of narrative about a first-generation college student who earned her bachelor’s degree with the help and support of Cornell University. “They work closely with undergraduate admissions to recruit students from the underrepresented groups. (The best Colleges)” it also provides a financial aid for these groups, including first-generation students. This university is an excellent example of many others giving different programs and opportunities for first-generation programs; many of these universities have financial aid programs since most first-generation students come from low-income or middle-income families. 

While many universities have programs for first-generation students, they all have a different way to help them succeed. Trinity University is an example; they provide financial resources and any other resources a student could face in this stage but what made them stand out is The allies program. “Allies… implemented an early move-in program that allowed first-generation… students to move in one day before the rest of the students. (The best Colleges)” it allows students and parents to navigate the campus’s different opportunities, such as health services, counseling, and more. It also allows the student to get more comfortable around campus to lessen the stress for the student. 

“89 percent of first-generation college students that come from low-income households leave college after six years without completing their degrees(Accredited School Online)”. The little guidance and college lifestyle is challenging for first-generation students and can be challenging for universities too. Texas Tech University focuses on increasing the graduation rates for first-generation students with the PEGASUS program. It “seeks to make the transition for first-generation students successful by assigning first-year students a mentor(The best Colleges).” it is a helpful program because it provides the students with somebody who can help them surpass many of the challenges. Still, it also can help them to develop relationships in college. 

Caring for these students is what makes Colorado State University a good option for first-generation students. It has the First Generation Award created to encourage students to attend college and promote diversity since it nearly enrolls more than 30,000 students a year. What makes it different from others is the end of the year banquet, where many first-generation students are an honor for making it throughout the year. In an interview with Mary Ontiveros, the CSU” vice president, she stated, “The message given is pretty clear: we care about you, we want you to be successful, and we’re here for you(The best Colleges)” and this is something some universities lack to offer; a sense of community for these students.

These are only some of the best universities that provide good support for first-generation students; there are plenty more universities where students can succeed. Encouraging these students is essential for the nation as it helps to amplify educated people into the workforce and increases the opportunities for future generations. A university’s tools to first-generation students demonstrate the diversity in campuses since first-generation students come from different cultural backgrounds and economic statuses. After all, it is up to these students to research and decide what university provides the best for them. Being a first-generation student can be challenging where there is a lack of resources to succeed.


“Are You a First-Generation College Student?” Accredited Schools Online, April 15, 2021.


“THE BEST COLLEGES FOR FIRST-GENERATION COLLEGE STUDENTS” The BEST COLLEGE, July 23, 2020. https://www.thebestcolleges.org/the-best-colleges-for-first-generation-college-students/ 

Center for First-Generation Student Success,2020. https://firstgen.naspa.org 

Research Project: How Can Online Learning Reduce The Cost of Higher Education?

A student taking online classes. Source: elearningindustry.com

Going to college is a luxury as the high cost of tuition creates a clear dividing line between the haves and the have-nots. It is necessary to explore cost-effective alternatives for students who cannot afford traditional higher education and wish to receive one. Due to its recent growth and popularity, online classes are offered as an affordable and accessible option for the students mentioned above. However, online classes must also ensure the effectiveness of student learning which Sean Michael Morris addresses in his article “Pivot to Online: A Student Guide” by discussing how students can succeed in online education.

In her article “A Review of Benefits and Limitations of Online Learning in the Context of the Student, the Instructor, and the Tenured Faculty,” Subhashni Appana states that distance education “is a formal learning activity, which occurs when students and instructors are separated by geographic distance or by time” (Appana 5). Learning is supported by communications technology such as video calls, computers, e-mail, and the internet (Appana 5). In their article, “An Overview of Online Education: Attractiveness, Benefits, Challenges, Concerns and Recommendations,” Chi-Sing Li and Beverly Irby state that “distance learning, especially online education, has gradually become an integral part of teaching in higher education” (Li & Irby 3). Among the benefits of online education are flexibility, digital skills, digital learning and information access, and high cost-effectiveness. In her article, Appana states that “under the right conditions, online learning cannot only be cost-effective, but can actually enrich instructors with skills and knowledge and bring in net profits for an educational institution” (Appana 18). Moreover, she suggests that institutions can save money by developing joint programs and partnering with international institutions to share the costs and reduce risks (Appana 18). From this perspective, the student would not be the only beneficiary but also the college institution.

By implementing online education, universities will save more money by “not having the cost of electricity or classroom cleaning,” as stated by the authors, Li and Irby. Furthermore, in his article “The Promises and Limits of Online Higher Education: Understanding How Distance Education Affects Access, Cost, and Quality,” Di Xu et al. suggest that “online courses have the potential to reduce the cost of providing education by increasing online class size without affecting student outcomes” (Xu et al. 20). In this manner, colleges would not need to construct larger buildings and parking lots to hold more students.

In his book, “The Cost of College,” Michael Regan estimates that “tuition and fees for an in-state resident at a public college might be $9,970 according to the College Board” (Regan 40). This is only the amount for in-state students; out-of-state students can pay up to $11,000 more of tuition and fees than their counterparts (Regan 40). However, students have more to worry about than just tuition fees in higher education. For example, if a college student decides to eat and live on campus, an average additional amount of $10,800 per year could be added in just a public four-year college; books, supplies, and transportation can add more thousands of dollars to this equation (Regan 40). With online learning, the cost of books and transportation will be significantly alleviated since the student will not have to move from one place to another or pay for parking. Besides, some teachers provide the books and materials within their curriculum for free. Thanks to digital learning, students also can rent their books online instead of buying them altogether.

Online classes break the parameters and limitations of traditional education. Distance learning opens more doors to interculturality since students from all over the world can be together in a course, which would be difficult due to the high cost of tuition for non-residents. According to Li and Irby, this mode of learning would enrich the student’s experience and perception. This means that the student would not be limited to their local universities but would have more freedom when choosing their career and institution (Li & Irby 4).

However, despite the significant advances and benefits that online classes bring and the demonstration that they can reduce the cost of higher education, they are not free from the criticism of certain educators and students. These can present some challenges for the student and the instructor. On the part of the student, there may be a lack of motivation, concentration, learning, time management problems, and poor communication between classmates and teachers. This is because online training requires greater performance from the student, so planning and discipline are key to be successful and take full advantage of this type of learning. In his article mentioned above, Morris notes that for students “to succeed as schools pivot to online, students will need to be resourceful,” (Morris), which leads the student to stay in constant communication with their instructor and faculty members and to be constantly active and responsible.

On the other hand, online classes may be challenging for instructors, especially if they have not received adequate training. To avoid challenges and to allow that the classes are not only cost-effective but functional in every sense of the word, institutions should invest in online courses by providing resources, platforms, and training that help the instructor deliver quality courses to the student. The benefits are there; it is the duty of the student, the instructor, and the institution to make it work by contributing together for a better experience that is beneficial for the three. As Appana herself said it in her article: “It is important not only to focus on the costs of developing and delivering an online course or program, but also to focus on potential performance and value-added benefits to both the institution and more importantly to the student” (Appana 19).


Works Cited

Appana, Subhashni. “A Review of Benefits and Limitations of Online Learning in the Context of the Student, the Instructor, and the Tenured Faculty.” International Journal on ELearning, vol. 7, no. 1, 2008, pp. 5-22. ProQuest, https://search.proquest.com/scholarly-journals/review-benefits-limitations-online-learning/docview/210364167/se-2?accountid=11226.

Regan, Michael. The Cost of College. Essential Library, 2020. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip,shib&db=nlebk&AN=2108774&site=eds-live&scope=site.

Morris, Sean Michael. “Pivot to Online: A Student Guide”. Sean Michael Morris, 2020, https://www.seanmichaelmorris.com/pivot-to-online-a-student-guide/. Accessed 22 Feb 2021.

Li, Chi-Sing, and Beverly Irby. “An Overview of Online Education: Attractiveness, Benefits, Challenges, Concerns and Recommendations.” College Student Journal, vol. 42, no. 2, June 2008, pp. 449–458. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip,shib&db=s3h&AN=32544879&site=eds-live&scope=site.

Xu, Di, et al. “The Promises and Limits of Online Higher Education: Understanding How Distance Education Affects Access, Cost, and Quality.” American Enterprise Institute, American Enterprise Institute, 1 Mar. 2019. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip,shib&db=eric&AN=ED596296&site=eds-live&scope=site.

Research Project: International Students and the Orientation Process

International students

“International students” by UNE Photos is licensed under CC BY 2.0

Orientation is one of the most important resources for a first-year college student. However, in her article, “Taking My Parents to College,” Jennine Capó Crucet argues how college orientation for first-generation students does not fully guide them through their transition period. There is a striking similarity between international and first-generation students regarding college orientation. Due to international students’ presence in the U.S., colleges need to evaluate how the orientation methods provided for these students affect their performance and transition to college.

International students form a significant part of the United States’ student population. In his article, “Challenges of International Students in a University Setting” KiMar D. Gartman states that, between 2011 and 2012, they contributed 21.8 billion dollars to the country’s wealth (1). Additionally, Zi Yan and Patricia Sendall, the writers of the article “First Year Experience: How we can Better Assist First-Year International Students in Higher Education,” mention that 886,052 international students attended United States’ colleges and universities in 2014 (36). Besides their contributions to the country’s economy, these types of students also help improve higher education. According to Gartman, “international students contribute to America’s scientific and technical research and bring international perspectives into U.S. classrooms, helping prepare American undergraduates for global careers” (“Economic and Social Impact” qtd. in Gartman 1). This quote from the Institute of International Education shows that foreign students nourish American classrooms with their international input. In such an interconnected era, preparedness for global careers is crucial for both undergraduate and graduate students.

Despite the many benefits that international students present for the United States, they still face several challenges during their transition. In his article, Gartman seeks to reveal what those challenges are and how universities could better address them. He expresses that the five major areas where international students struggle are social life, cultural adaptation, language proficiency, academics, and finances (1). Out of those five areas, social life, cultural adaptation, and language proficiency constituted 68% of the students’ concerns (Gartman 3). Since international students do not speak English as their primary language, language proficiency takes place as one of the most significant challenges for them. However, this linguistic struggle leads to social and cultural challenges. Due to their concern/fear/shyness of speaking a secondary language, international students have difficulty socializing with their American peers, leading to cultural misunderstandings and possibly stereotypes. Gartman and other scholars argue that orientation and other activities oriented towards international students are the solutions to these students’ challenges.

Although a better orientation program for international students seems to be the solution for their problems, many universities have not implemented such programs. In her essay, Crucet expresses that “while [her] college had done an excellent job recruiting [her], [she] had no road map for what [she] was supposed to do once [she] made it to campus” (3). Many international students experience the situation portrayed by Crucet’s story. Colleges and universities advertise themselves and attract international students, but they do not fully meet their needs regarding assistance in the transition process. Transitions can be tough, especially when students leave family and friends to move into a completely new environment. Higher education institutions have decided to tackle the struggles that transitions bring with “college orientation.” For this reason, it is crucial to explore the effect (if any) that orientation programs have on international students’ academic performance and transition to college.

As stated before, most U.S. universities do not have special orientation programs directed towards international students. However, some institutions have developed these kinds of programs to assist their students’ needs better. In his article, “Rolling Out the Welcome Mat,” Michael Polito presents the procedures that the Fordham University in New York City implemented to assist their Fall 2012 international students during their transition. Polito discusses how the university created “The Global Transition Program,” which “offered a full week of events designed to help [international] students adapt to anything that might be unfamiliar, from academic expectations to the metropolis in which Fordham sits” (30). This program implemented at Fordham University focused on international students’ cultural and social adaptation, which are two of the biggest challenges for them. The result: fewer students dropped courses in Fall 2012 than any other Fall semesters, and zero international students were identified in an English course above their level (Polito 31). “The Global Transition Program” used by Fordham University proved that a specialized orientation program for international students helps them have a smoother transition and face the different struggles that this presents.

With Fordham University’s example, it would be accurate to conclude that an orientation program directed towards international students helps their transition to college. However, the effect of such a program on their academic achievement must be observed. In their article, Yan and Sendall study a First-Year Experience (FYE) course implemented in a Catholic Liberal Arts college that focuses on international students. The study showed that this orientation course helped the students “learn a lot about college, feel more comfortable communicating with their professors, adjust to American culture and to the American classroom, and to make more friends and understand more about themselves” (Yan & Sendall 39). In general, this specialized program also helped international students have a better transition to the college environment. However, “students reported that they did not feel that the FYE course helped their academic performance directly” (Yan & Sendall 43). In other words, although an orientation program highly benefited international students’ transition, their academic performance was not improved according to this study. Dr. Meltem A. Güvendir conducted a similar study in her article, “The Relation of an International Student Center’s Orientation Training Sessions with International Students’ Achievement and Integration to University.” Overall, Güvendir came to the same conclusions as Yan and Sendall: international students who participated in more specialized orientation sessions were more integrated into the university (Güvendir 852). Nonetheless, as Yan and Sendall concluded in their study, students’ participation in these orientations did not have a noticeable impact on their GPAs (Güvendir 852).

After the previous discussion, it is precise to state that orientation programs play a significant role in international students’ transitions. According to Yan and Sendall’s and Güvendir’s study, these types of orientations do not seem to have a direct effect on the student’s academic performance. However, all the researchers agree that specialized orientation programs help improve international students’ transition and integration to college. Although these orientations do not directly affect the students’ GPAs, they do improve their academic performance as they help lower the dropout rates. Finally, due to the improvement in international students’ integration, these programs may have a positive long-term effect on their academics.


Works Cited

Capó Crucet, Jennine. “Taking My Parents to College”. The New York Times, 2015, https://www.nytimes.com/2015/08/23/opinion/sunday/taking-my-parents-to-college.html.

Gartman, KiMar D. “Challenges of International Students in a University Setting.” Journal of Adult Education, vol. 45, no. 2, 2016, pp. 1-7. ProQuest, https://search.proquest.com/scholarly-journals/challenges-international-students-university/docview/1870958282/se-2?accountid=11226.

Güvendir, Meltem A. “The Relation of an International Student Center’s Orientation Training Sessions with International Students’ Achievement and Integration to University.” Journal of International Students, vol. 8, no. 2, 2018, pp. 843-860. ProQuest, https://search.proquest.com/scholarly-journals/relation-international-student-centers/docview/2067965125/se-2?accountid=11226, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1250385.

Polito, Michael. “Rolling Out the Welcome Mat.” BizEd, vol. 12, no. 3, May 2013, pp. 30–31. EBSCOhost, search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=ip,shib&db=a9h&AN=87467412&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

Yan, Zi, and Patricia Sendall. “First Year Experience: How we can Better Assist First-Year International Students in Higher Education.” Journal of International Students, vol. 6, no. 1, 2016, pp. 35-51. ProQuest, https://search.proquest.com/scholarly-journals/first-year-experience-how-we-can-better-assist/docview/1783942543/se-2?accountid=11226.