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Bioremediation is the clean up of oil, toxic chemicals, or other environmental pollutants. Often it impossible to remove all contaminated material, so it is then contained. An example of a need for containment would include uranium, an inorganic poll (More)
Lab Safety
Tell of all accidents immediately. Keep pathways clear. Extra items should be put out of the way so no one trips or so they do not get contaminated. Long hair and loose clothing should be tied up. Do not taste or smell anything. Safet (More)
Nanoarchaeota is a phylum of very small parasitic Archaea that branches closest to the root of the archaeal phylogentic tree. Cells of Nanoarchaeum, the only genus in this phylum, are small coccoids that live as parasites, or possibly as symbionts, o (More)
Thaumarchaeota represent a unique phylum within the domain Archaea that embraces ammonia-oxidizing organisms from soil, marine waters, and hot springs as well as many lineages represented only by environmental sequences from virtually every habitat t (More)
Nutrient Cycles and Human Impacts on Nutrient Cycles and Microbial Communities
There are three main nutrient cycles that bacteria use. They are the carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, and sulfur cycles.  In the carbon cycle, CO2 is removed from the atmosphere by photosynthesis of land plants and return through the respiration of land (More)
Sterilization Techniques
1.Autoclaving Pressurized steam is used to heat the material to be sterilized. It kills all microbes, spores and viruses. Autoclaving kills microbes by hydrolysis.  The intense heat comes from the steam. 2. Flaming and baking Microbes are ki (More)
Water Treatment
Water cannot be discarding untreated into lakes or streams due to environmental, and public health consideration. Primary Wastewater treatment uses physical separation methods to separate solids, particulate organic and inorganic material from water. (More)
Mineral Recovery
Minerals are recovered through the leaching process. The minerals that are readily oxidized are iron and copper, but leaching also is used for gold and uranium. In the microbial leaching, the ore is dumped into a large pile and dilute sulfuric acid a (More)
Nitrogen Fixation
In microbial nitrogen fixation, atmospheric nitrogen is converted to ammonia by nitrogenases. Microorganisms that use nitrogen fixation include cyanobacteria, green sulfur bacteria, rhizobia, and diazotrophs. Nitrogen fixation is coupled with hydroly (More)
Methanogenesis is the process where methane is formed by microbial methanogens. Methanogenesis is a form of anaerobic respiration when oxygen is not used. Many methanogens are known to be obligatory anaerobes and are inhibited in growth in the presen (More)
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