Archive of ‘Reading Summaries’ category

“Better Online Living through Content Moderation” Reading Summary 6


When analyzing the argument that Melissa King discusses in the article, some of the examples that she mentioned were a little farfetched. I agree with what she was saying in regards to her statement on “nobody should be required to read or listen to content if they do not want to”, however, when she used an example of someone having PTSD to trigger their anxiety—that was far left.  This small issue, I do believe that King makes some valid points in regards to internet censors and content moderation. I believe that those who are involved heavily with the internet—specifically the millennial generation—are too sensitive to what they see online. Cyberbullying is an issue that we need to take on with full force, cyberbullying can be prevented by not only content moderation, but also the fact that one who is being cyberbullies can simply remove themselves from the situation by logging off whatever social media they are being targeted on. By doing this, Many cyberbully cases can simply fade with time and also.

With online abuse specifically, I believe that it is one-hundred percent avoidable. There are so many opportunities for content moderation such as deleting the app that you are using or using a blacklist feature on the social media platforms, which is something that Melissa King also suggests. I also believe that using women as targets on these social media platforms is wrong and unjust, and is a double standard in today’s media society. For instance, a female who posts a risqué photo online will be slut-shamed online as opposed to a male who can post something similar. It is an issue in popular culture and this sexist attitude on social media apps is just wrong. However, using these targets as a ploy for attacks online through slut-shaming, is just downright terrible. I believe that using content moderation and a blacklist feature is perfect for these situations, as it would indeed prevent someone from being attacked online.

I feel as if Melissa King should have discussed this more in her entry, as I would have loved to learn more about this certain issue. With the article itself though, I don’t think that people with PTSD should even be using a computer and logging in online in the first place, so that is something to consider when looking at social media attacks online. This is the prime issue to consider. Even though cyberbullying is a heinous crime and shouldn’t be taken lightly, I feel as if someone with an issue with mental disorders should probably stay off the internet in its entirety, specifically the social media realm of the web. Instead of using that time online, they could be doing something more productive such as getting the help they need to treat their mental disorder.

Melissa King did a fabulous job in presenting the issue of media blacklisting and moderation, and fully agree with what she had to say about the detrimental effects a negative trigger from an online source can have on a person’s mental health.


“Color Walking” Reading Summary 5

In this article “Color Walking” by Phia Bennin and Brendan McMullan. The starting point of the subject begins by explaining the actual experiment of color walking its self. The introduction provides you with the insight that the color walking experiment expertly developed. Continuously, the authors begins unfold the experiment by drawing the reader to visualize a color of their choice. Once the reader has taken the moment to visual their color, the virtual experiment begins. Now, the authors round out the opening concept of color walking by utilizing real world examples such as “the red of a bicyclist’s shorts” and ” the sunburn on a woman’s shoulders”.

Once the concept of color walking was established in the initial paragraph. Readers were now able to expand their understanding of color walking by being able to establish a flexibility within the experiment to transition from color to color. The new established flexibility to switch colors produces a virtual linear patterns between the various colors. The Preliminary visual pattern was horizontal. This lead the spectators eyes to move from left to the right lavender bag. A secondary visual pattern that developed was the yellow cab which guided the spectators vision downward from a “yellow cab” to a “side street”. The final visual example drifted from the linear pattern explained in the previous visual demonstration and introduced greater variation spotting with “a green pistachio ice cream cone” to landing in a literally green space: a park.

After the article has finished explaining the all variations of the experiment, a web-based tour was embedded into the article. The embedded activity simulated a sunny day in New York city. The different times slot displayed various items discovered throughout the day. All thought the day color choices such as blues, purples, and pink were selected in small insignificant finds that might otherwise be overlooked.

The overall experience after the virtual tour resulted in the lesson of viewing the world in living color. The article began concluding its final thoughts by beginning the article how it started.  A reader’s experience of exhausting the whole day carefully monitoring all colors and objects passing by. This final mental simulation infused the reader with the authors’ perception of the befits associated with the color walking. Also the authors drives their points home about color walking through utilizing suggestions for the readers who will take on the color walking experiment on their own.

Bennin and McMullan, exits the article with their final comments on how to successfully complete a the color walking experience. The authors prescribe three golden rules. The opening rule concerns solely about concentration. By the reader taking a deep breath and focus on creating a space where no distractions are present from no cellphone to silence; which results in “uninterrupted eye time”. Post “uninterrupted eye time”, the reader can now focus on selecting a color they fancy the most. When taking time and consideration for the color choice, the reader is able to experience a more concrete and fulfilling experience of the experiment. The final tip pertains to the reader exercising their flexibility. If the reader become bewildered in the process of trying to following a specific color; thankfully, they can take a deep breath, blink multiple times and simply select a new color.

Color walking is an interesting and exciting avenue to explore a city, while also experiencing an personal pulse on the built envirmoment.


Color Walking

Color Walking

Live Green. Learn Better

Hurt ParkIn this article researchers Hillsdon, Panter, Foster, Jones examine how accessible green spaces are in urban environments. The researchers explore how undistributed amount of green space allocated in cities. The experiment was conducted in Norwich, UK. The method in which the experiment was carry out was through the calculating the distance of the green spaces to people of various economic background status. In addition to testing how much of the green space is accessible, the researcher also learned that that a reduction in greens space affects the amount of recreational physical activity in these areas. Once the experimenters conducted the experiment the results render, that green spaces could not be full conclusive that economic status is associated with the amount of green spaces in an urban environment. The lack of green spaces in urban areas inspire a lower level of physical activity than those who live in an area with access to more green spaces. The absence of green spaces in urban areas heavily impact the lives of those who live the area in negative ways residents may not notice. This study proves the built environment has an impact on recreational physical activities.


University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TP, UK
University of East Anglia, Norwich, NR4 7TJ, UK
University of Oxford, Headington, Oxford, OX3 7LF, UK
Available online 25 October 2006

living Green

Summary of “Recognizing Campus Landscapes as Learning Spaces  By: Kathleen G. Scholl & Gowri Betrabet Gulwadi

In this article, Kathleen Scholl & Gwori Gulwadi opens the discussion around 20.4 million students attending colleges and universities and how the number continues to grow. This growing student population challenges university to reframe their teaching methods and campus environments of today’s college population. The experimenters propose that “colleges and universities should utilize their natural landscape as a learning resource for students” (Scholl and Gulwadi 1).

As the article continues, Scholl and Gulwadi examine the historical background of college campuses. Many of America’s colleges and universities are located in rural areas due to their origination being centered around creating a seclude place apart from city life, in addition; the land act of 1862 required labs and scientific research buildings to be built. This innovation created the optimum learning environment. An early land space designer, Fredrick Olmstead stated ““natural scenery employs the mind without fatigue and yet exercises it; tranquilizes it and yet enlivens it” (Scholl and Gulwadi 54). The amount of land is still significant to college and universities today. As institutions continue to evolve and campus landscapes become more urbanized, the appeal of greenery will continue to pose importance to colleges overall learning environment.

Scholl and Gulwadi evaluate the definition of landscape better understand its place in the campus setting. In the article nature is defined as ““physical features and processes of nonhuman origin that people ordinarily can perceive… together with still and running water, qualities of air and weather, and the landscapes that comprise these and show the influences of geological processes” (Scholl and Gulwadi 55). This definition allows for the campus environments to provide the perspective of viewing campus settings as part of the environment. By this perspective being taken into consideration, the most inclusive and eco-friendly landscape can be achieved for students attending colleges or universities. The researchers have noted that many times students experience loss in cognitive functions such as concentration and focus, impulse, inhabitation and also memory due to fatigue and overuse (Hartig, et al., 2014; Kaplan & Kaplan, 1989). When colleges and universities provide green spaces on their campus, these ailments that plague most college students and can alleviated simply by being surrounded in a natural learning space. Consequently, students who have a nature setting on their campus experience less stress and hostility. A campus that caters to depleting the cognitive aliments of students being stressed and overwork through a natural environment, will then create an institution of well rounded students.

The traditional setting of a college campus has been created learning environments that are no longer concussive to the new age students who attend those institutions. As the technology advances and colleges and universities continue to expand; the addition of natural landscapes or green spaces  can provide the students with benefits of being at a high institution of learning but also providing a natural environment to be in touch with mother nature. Scholl and Gulwadi conclusion reinforced the idea that natural green spaces environment is beneficial to student learning.

Scholl, Kathleen G., and Gowri Betrabet Gulwadi. “Recognizing Campus Landscapes as Learning Spaces.” Journal of Learning Spaces 4, no. 1 (July 8, 2015).

Innovation in the ClassRoom

Active Learning envirmoment

Active Learning enviroment

Summary of “Pedagogy Matters, Too: The Impact of Adapting Teaching Approaches to Formal Learning Environments on Student Learning” – D. Christopher Brooks, Catherine A. Solheim

In this article, D. Brooks and Catherine Solheim examines the how students learn and receive information when taught in an active learning environment. The study began in the fall 2009 on the campus of the university of Minnesota. The experimenters wanted to produce constant data over multiple semesters. So the study was conducted using the same instructor, classroom (student in the ALC), and personal finance course.

Once Brook and Solheim, created the constant they started the active learning experiment, also known as the qusi-experiment. The course –Personal Family Finance converted from a traditional lecture into an active learning environment. In the team learning environment, the students had mandatory class attendance, viewed videos, and other required material before each class. (Brown 54) Also the traditional use of hardback textbooks were nixed from the active classroom setting and now student receive crucial information through technological mediums.

After the active learning approach had been implemented to the personal Finance course, brown and Solheim collected data from one-hundred and eleven students who had been expose to the active learning course in the fall of 2009. The Students were asked at the end of the semester to complete a forty-five question survey on their experience in the active learning environment. Once the data was collected, brown and solhiem observed that the student who took the traditional Personal Finance course in the fall of 2008 received an overall grade of 81.80 and the students who were exposed to the qusi-experiment in the fall of 2009 received an overall grade of 85.50. (Brown 56) These results reinforced the experimenter’s original hypothesis that the active learning approach would increase the grade average of student who were actively engaged in the learning process then those who are not.

In addition to the initial results displayed about the increase in grade point average in students in the active learning course, another explanation is the difference in presentation the course assignments. This is due to the fall 2009 ALC students having been introduce to the assigments in an engaged manner than the traditional learning students. The data collected that students that received engaged approach to major course assignments produced high averages. ALC students received 14.60 percent higher on participation, 5.36 percent on the financial planner, 6.43 percent on case studies, 13.60 percent on the final exam, and 9.31 on various quizzes. (Brown 58)


Fortunately, the final condenses of the qusi-experiment conducted by Brown and Solhiem rendered three conclusions. The first is that the ALC learning approach should be considered in colleges and universities. Secondly, instructors teaching the course should approach the course which an active learning mentality.  And the third conclusion is that there is more than ALC method of teaching, and each instructor must find the style and method that is most effective for them as in individual.

As time continues and technology becomes more prevalent in our everyday society active learning approach will be implemented more over time.

Brooks, D. Christopher, and Catherine A. Solheim. “Pedagogy Matters, Too: The Impact of Adapting Teaching Approaches to Formal Learning Environments on Student Learning.” New Directions for Teaching & Learning 2014, no. 137 (Spring 2014): 53. doi:10.1002/tl.20085.

Summary “Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation Through Physical Design of the Built Environment. “

Sarah Schindler, an Associate Professor, at University of Maine School of Law examines how “monumental structures of concrete and steel embody a systematic social inequality”. Physical attributes of cities such as park benches with  divided seats are avenue to prevent the homeless from laying down. These structures implement a normalcy to the increasing issue of excluding the homeless within the American society.

In urban cities the exclusion created by the built environment is more prevalent. Planners are aware that some structures are built to benefit some while leaving others disadvantaged. Some planners neglect to consideration all who live in urban environment due to the Nicholas Blomley’s term “traffic logic- the idea that planners and civil engineers prioritize the flow of pedestrians and traffic through a physical space, with a focus on civil engineering, rather than prioritizing equal access to a physical space for all, with a focus civil rights.” The ideology by behind this type of development of cities, render a breeding ground for the environmental exclusion. Many times the ones left disadvantaged are the poor and minorities. When discussing the built environment from a scholarship lens, the topic is usually generalized and only stated with surface information. Lessig only discusses two neighborhoods limits the extent to which the neighborhoods integrate. Too often the scholarship community refer to the build in environment as high technology (lee tien) and a metaphoric in justice (Susan strum).  These terms are used to gloss over the social exclusion of the built environment but not look at build environment as the problem its self. Some legal scholars confront the issued surrounding the built environment. The ideas of exclusionary amenities, allows for developers to created residential areas that only appeal to individuals of specific social economic class. This in directed permits the developer excludes for people of people of color in the specific area.

Communities also design their transit systems to exclude people in the built environment. In places of northern metro Atlanta affluent suburbs wont allow the MARTA to be present in the communities so that undesirable people aren’t able to penetrate this area. People of low income and of color usually have a more difficult time because they are more dependent of public transportation than others. Transits development is many time strategically placed inconspicuously to keep people away such examples like highways. These highways create almost impossible avenues to walk across to reach more influential places.  Unfortunately, many like Cynthia Wiggins- a seventeen-year-old hit on her way to work at a suburban mall are left victim to this type of architecture. Additionally, Sidewalks cross walks are made difficult to cross sometimes intentionally to exclude certain individuals from entering into these neighborhoods. Walled ghettos are a simple way to create this division like The eight mile wall in Detroit. In other places like the pubic housing communities in New Heaven the elimination wall did not fall until May of 2014, but the effects are this physical separation are still felt today with the ghetto still isolated by the social economic status of the surrounding communities.

The exclusion on the built environment will continue to be felt until reform can be brought to the way the built environment is developed.


SCHINDLER, SARAH. “Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination And Segregation Through Physical Design Of The Built Environment.” Yale Law Journal 124.6 (2015): 1934-2024. Academic Search Complete. Web. 25 Jan. 2016.