GSEQ help and references

Help image

For detailed information about GSEQ, the best source is the extensive Help file contained in the program.  Just select help form the main menu.

The best reference is our recent book, Bakeman, R., & Quera, V. (2011). Sequential Analysis and Observational Methods for the Behavioral Science, shown to the right.  Here is its description (from the cover):

Behavioral scientists – including those in psychology, infant and child development, education, animal behavior, marketing, and usability studies – use many methods to measure behavior. Systematic observation is used to study relatively natural, spontaneous behavior as it unfolds sequentially in time. This book emphasizes digital means to record and code such behavior; although observational methods do not require them, they work better with them.

Key topics include devising coding schemes, training observers, and assessing reliability, as well as recording, representing, and analyzing observational data. In clear and straightforward language, this book provides a thorough grounding in observational methods along with considerable practical advice. It describes standard conventions for sequential data and details how to perform sequential analysis with a computer program developed by the authors. The book is rich with examples of coding schemes and different approaches to sequential analysis, including both statistical and graphical means.


Other relevant books and articles include:

Bakeman, R., & Quera, V. (2023).  Behavioral observation.  In In H. Cooper, M. N. Coutanche, L. M. McMullen, and T. Panter (Eds.), APA handbook of research methods in psychology: Vol. 1. Foundations, planning, methods, and psychometrics (2nd ed.).  Washington, DC:  American Psychological Association. (ISBN: 978-1-4338-4123-1)

Bakeman, R., & Quera, V. (2012).  Behavioral observation.  In H. Cooper (Ed.-in-Chief), APA handbook of research methods in psychology: Volume 1. Foundations, Planning, Measures, and Psychometrics.  Washington, DC:  American Psychological Association. (ISBN: 978-1-4338-1003-9)

Bakeman, R., Quera, V., & Gnisci A. (2009). Observer Agreement for Timed-Event Sequential Data: A Comparison of Time-Based and Event-Based Algorithms. Behavior Research Methods, 41, 137–147.

Bakeman, R., & Quera, V. (2008).  ActSds and OdfSds:  Programs for converting INTERACT and The Observer data files into SDIS timed-event sequential data files.  Behavior Research Methods, 40, 869–872. /10.3758/brm.40.3.869

Quera, V., Bakeman, R., & Gnisci, A. (2007). Observer agreement for event sequences: Methods and software for sequence alignment and reliability estimates. Behavior Research Methods, 39, 39–49.

Bakeman, R., & Gottman, J. M. (1997). Observing interaction: an introduction to sequential analysis (2nd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge Univeristy Press.

Bakeman, R., & Quera, V. (1995).  Log-linear approaches to lag-sequential analysis when consecutive codes may and cannot repeat.  Psychological Bulletin, 118, 272–284.

Bakeman, R., & Robinson, B. F. (1994).  Understanding log-linear analysis with ILOG:  An interactive approach.  Hillsdale, NJ:  Erlbaum.