Lawrence, A B, and E Wall. “Selection For ‘Environmentai Fit’ From Existing Domesticated Species.” Revue Scientifique Et Technique (International Office Of Epizootics) 33.1 (2014): 171-179. MEDLINE with Full Text. Web. 24 Mar. 2016.
The articles is about the history of animals breeding. Which has a very long history in which farm animals where breed for human benefits. Using a process called selection, in the articles selection refers to the genetic improvement of animals with artificial selection. Recently the practice of animal breeding has become more sophisticated, increasing the speed of production traits. For example, the rate of growth (increased) in animals. However there’s also been some well documented evidence of negative fertility and health issues in high yielding dairy cattle. The author of this article is trying to explore the questions surrounding breeding and welfare. Concluding that there is a better need for an understanding of genotype and the environments effect on health and welfare traits in order to get breeding programs to improve environmental fit in animals.
Weber, Eli. “Vulnerability, Dependence, And Special Obligations To Domesticated Animals: A Reply To Palmer.” Journal Of Agricultural & Environmental Ethics 28.4 (2015): 683-694. Business Source Complete. Web. 20 Mar. 2016.
The article is a reply to Clare Palmer’s argument that most people have a “special obligation” to assist domesticated animals. Because Domestication creates Vulnerability and dependency and most humans benefits from the institute of domestication. Palmer believes that even if they have not consented to such obligations or bred domesticated animals themselves. However, Eli Weber disagrees stating that palmer has given no reason for people to accept this claim and that even if there’s such a thing as special obligation and that vulnerable and dependent beings give rise to special obligation, just because we benefit from these animals does not mean we have a special obligation to them. That the special obligation Palmer disuses refers to the “moral obligations which are borne to a subset of individuals rather than all individuals with direct moral status”. Concluding that voluntarism explain the prevalent intuition to often assist domestic animals because of special obligation but rarely wild animals.
Hosey, Geoff. “Hediger Revisited: How Do Zoo Animals See Us?.” Journal Of Applied Animal Welfare Science 16.4 (2013): 338. Advanced Placement Source. Web. 26 Feb. 2016.
This article is about how animals( specifically zoo animals ) view us, how it is difficult to determine and most likely more difficult with other vertebrates and harder with invertebrates. Most of evidence of the animals perception is through study of primates. When particular animals and human have a history of interactions, to the extent that they can anticipate how the other is going to behave. It can be assumed that a human-animal interaction has taken place. Relationship is defined as a series of interactions in time between two individuals that are known to each other, and the interactions affects the future course of the relationship.
Human-animal relation( HAR) can be established between individuals animals and peoples, but it’s also possible to conceive a generalized HAR between one person and a group of animals. Hedgier stated 5 ways that humans can be perceived by animals: enemy, prey, a symbiont, a part of the inanimate environment, and as a member of the same species.
Kurtycz, Laura M. “Choice And Control For Animals In Captivity.” Psychologist 28.11 (2015): 892-894. Academic Search Complete. Web. 26 Feb. 2016.
The article discuss the subject of learned helpfulness, which is caused by lack of control. Animals in captivity also face this problem. The captivity can lead to serious negative consequences and evidenced behaviorally and psychology. However, the hypothesis is that providing choices to captivated animals may alleviate these choices. Researchers have found that animals all have their own individual preference. Animals like specific food, social partners, and activities. Also, that animals in captivity will work for things they like chimpanzee.
It’s important to understand animals preferences when designing environments and enrichments for them. Researchers have found that having a choice has a positive effect on behavior. Zoo(s) are well equipped to deal with this question, because they usually have animals exhibits with several different locations for the animals. These buildings usually have an indoor and outdoor habitat, one viewable to the public the other is not. For example, when sheep’s where given the option to retreat from the public, they showed lower rates of undesirable behaviors.