AB: The Building Blocks of Atlanta: Racial Residential Segregation and Neighborhood Inequity


Hayes, Melissa Mae, “The Building Blocks of Atlanta: Racial Residential Segregation and Neighborhood Inequity.” Thesis, Georgia State University, 2006.

Using the Census 2000 block group data, Melissa Hayes examines “racial residential segregation in the five core counties of Atlanta.” This study was conducted in order to prove that residential segregation has a direct correlation with discrimination and the inequalities suffered by minorities in the 21st century.

Atlanta Region Race & Ethnicity Changes, 2000-2010

This article is useful for anyone needing a reliable source dealing with racial statistics and segregation in the 21st century. Within this article Hayes makes the direct correlation between class and race pointing out the difference in education opportunities and just all around community preservation. Throughout the article is a variety of comparisons of the traditional white neighborhood versus the traditional black neighborhood.

Rich V.S Poor (Color Line)
Rich V.S Poor (Color Line)

Hayes also goes on to say, “During the first half of the twentieth century, white Americans, through the denial of access to housing markets in metropolitan areas, created the black urban ghetto (Massey and Denton 1993).” Thus creating the color line and keeping it going from generation to generation. This information can be used in an article addressing the impact historical events still have on society today.

Other interesting facts include how bank lenders made it difficult for African Americans to leave the ghetto because they will not do business with them. Just the same real estate agents demand “unreasonably inflated interests rates“ requiring higher down payments in order for African Americans to even consider leaving the ghetto. This is a great resource to use on legal racial discrimination in the society today.

AB: South Dakota Ban on Transgender Students


Holly Yan, a reporter/writer/editor for CNN Digital, wrote the article titled “South Dakota Could be First State to Ban Transgender Students in Some Restrooms” focusing on a bill South Dakota is trying to get passed forcing transgender students to use the restroom of their biological gender rather than the one they identify with. This bill was put in motion in order to ” protect the physical privacy of students from having to expose themselves, or be exposed to others, when in a state of undress or nakedness while at school or school functions,” according the bill’s author State Representative Fred Deutsch. “The state Senate passed the bill Tuesday, February 16,  in a 20-15 vote, after the state House approved it 58-10 last month. The measure now goes to Republican Gov. Dennis Daugaard’s desk.” This news article is useful for anyone needing an example when doing research on architectural discrimination or the exclusion of the transgender community in 2016.



AB: No food stamps for steak or lobster, bill says






Jon Campbell, an Albany reporter who has covered New York state Government for Lohud and the journal news wrote an article titled “No food stamps for steak or lobster, bill says” covering a story that highlights statelaw makers attempting to “block the use of food stamps for ‘luxury’ items like high-end stakes, lobster and junk food.”


Justifying this by using America’s overwhelming obesity epidemic as a scapegoat for a specific attack on lower class minority families. In the bills memo it states’ “…it is critically important that taxpayer-funded programs help low-income consumers make wise and healthy food choices.”

Jeremy Saunders, co-executive director of Vocal New York, feels as though this is none other than, “…a Republican attempt to make it appear that poor people use tax dollars to buy steak and lobster.” This current event can serve as a supportive clause for anyone writing on legal discrimination and the new form of racism in 2016.

Discrimination In Hospitals

Johnstone, Megan-Jane

Johnstone, Megan-Jane, and Olga Kanitsaki. “The Spectrum Of ‘New Racism’ And Discrimination In Hospital Contexts: A Reappraisal.” Collegian 16.(2009): 63-69. ScienceDirect. Web. 10 Feb. 2016.


Professor Megan-Jane Johnstone , an international healthcare ethicist, wrote the article “The spectrum of ‘new racism’ and discrimination in hospital contexts: A reappraisal” to bring attention to fact that, “Despite the universal right to health, people of minority racial and ethnic backgrounds experience commonplace and significant unjust inequalities in their health and health care.” Johnstone discuses this new form of racism that is unrecognizable for even those with racist intentions do to its “changing face”.


As evidence Johnstone presents three case scenarios conducted by “an Australian research study investigating cultural competency and cultural safety in health care (Johnstone & Kanitsaki, 2005).” Case one being about the staffs hospitality towards an Arabic woman who’s son required monthly treatment at a hospital due to his serious medical condition. Soon After the terrorist attack on 9/11 this woman noticed a “significant and soul-destroying change in attitude and behavior toward her by hospital staff.” She went on to say, “… they rejected, shunned and avoided her, and ultimately became inattentive and indifferent to her plight.” This type of discriminatory treatment was unfair in so many ways. Americans were so hurt with the unfortunate tragedy that happened that they just wanted to take it out on anyone with even the slightest resemblance of “the enemy”. Johnstone also included a quote from the Arabic woman’s sister about a conversation they shared with one saying, ‘Sometimes I want to say, “We’re not terrorists, we’re not liars.” I said, ‘No you don’t have to explain yourself. They can see you are a mother caring for your own son, you don’t have to say that.’ Regardless of the events people in America should be able to see that she is the same woman she was before 9/11 occurred.


Scenario two involves the experience of a health interpreter that had several years of experience with hospitals. This anonymous interpreter witnessed first hand a nurse putting “non-English speaking patients ‘at the bottom of the pile’ because of concerns they had that the patients would get ‘preferential treatment’ on account of an interpreter being booked for a specific time.” This has even led to interpreters having to leave their patients before they actually have been seen by their doctor because of other commitment.

Megan-Jane Johnstone wrote this article to bring the new form of racism and discrimination into the lime light to unmask the ugly truth and promote a change in order to make, “…hospitals safe havens where  people who are ill and injured can go for care and treatment without prejudice.” When going to a hospital a patient should expect that when receiving care they should be treated in a “non-discriminatory manner” and will be treated with the same respect as that of the staffs’ own family. This article would be useful for anyone writing about discrimination or racism in society today.


AB Disabled by Design

Businessman on a wheelchair against modern stairs (Simone Becchetti via Getty Images)
The discrimination of modern architectural designed against the disabled. (Simone Becchetti via Getty Images)

Clark Miller, Claire Gordon. “Disabled by Design.” How a lack of imagination in technology keeps the world inaccessible to huge numbers of people.N.p., n.d. Web.

Clark Miller, the associate director of the Consortium for Science, Policy & Outcomes at Arizona State University teamed up with Claire Gordon, a researcher of the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education to write “Disabled by Design”, an article that is primarily focused on the concept of “technology’s patterns force people to design their own bodies to fit in—or those patterns exclude people from participation when they don’t fit.” Miller uses Regan Brashears’s film Fixed to show that in society today ” the most common response is to call for technology to fix disabled bodies– Rather than designing the world so that a diverse population can function and thrive within it.”


(U.S. Air Force photo by Master Sgt. Paul Gorman/Released)
(U.S. Air Force photo by Master Sgt. Paul Gorman/Released)

One of the supporting arguments given is the research conducted by the Claire Gordon on the U.S. Black Hawk helicopter. In this study Gordon informs her audience on the architectural exclusion of the U.S. Black Hawk. Gordon states “while the engineers used conventional standards to construct the design of workstations and equipment in the cockpit, it only fits 90% of the users. Within these percentages there is even a smaller amount of female minorities able to use this equipment,  “– in the general Army population, more than one-third of female soldiers and almost three-quarters of Hispanic female soldiers physically did not have the right size or shape body to fly a Black Hawk. ”


“Disabled by Design” was written to influence the thought of the citizens and to hopefully become “The citizens guide to the future.” This would be useful for any researcher looking for a credible source with scholarly accredited studies to support the theory of discrimination within architecture towards certain groups, specifically the disabled.

sdaniel28 & caskew7