Journal Articles

The Diffusion of Information Technology and the Increased Propensity of Teams to Transcend Institutional and National Borders,” (Anne E. Winkler, Wolfgang Glänzel, Sharon Levin, and Paula Stephan), forthcoming  Revue Economique special issue on Careers, Wages and Productivity in Higher Education and Research. (IZA discussion paper no. 5857, July 2011).

“Mobile Scientists:  Superior Performance of Migrant Scientists” (Chiara Franzoni, Giuseppe Scellato and Paula Stephan), Economics Letters 122: 89–93, 2014.

Publishing Trends in Economics across Colleges and Universities, 1991–2007 (Anne Winkler, Sharon Levin, Paula Stephan and Wolfgang Glänzel), Eastern Economic Journal, September, 2013.

Perverse Incentives 
In Nature, April 5, 2012.

Foreign Born Scientists:  Mobility Patterns for 16 Countries,” Nature Biotechnology, 30:150-153, 2012.  (NBER Working Paper 18067).   

A Multidimensional View of Industrial and Academic Science,” (Henry Sauermann and Paula Stephan), Organization Science, September, 2012.  (NBER Working Paper 16113, 2010).

Changing Incentives to Publish,” (Chiara Franzoni, Giuseppe Scellato and Paula Stephan), Science, 33:702-703, 2011.

Innovation in Academe:  The Diffusion of IT Technologies.”  (Sharon Levin, Paula Stephan and Anne Winkler), Applied Economics, 44:1765-1782, 2011.

“Conveying Quality and Value in Emerging Industries: Star Scientists and the Role of Signals”  (Matthew Higgins, Paula Stephan and Jerry Thursby), Research Policy, 40:605-617, 2011.

“The Impact of Information Technology on Scientists’ Productivity, Quality and Collaboration Patterns” (Waverly Ding, Sharon Levin, Paula Stephan and Anne Winkler). Management Science, Vol. 56, pp. 1439-1461, 2010.

“The Diffusion of IT in Higher Education:  Publishing Productivity of Academic Life Scientists.”  (Anne E. Winkler, Sharon G. Levin and Paula E. Stephan), Economics of Innovation and New Technology. Vol. 19, No.5, July 2010, 475-497

The Knowledge Production Function for University Patenting.” (Shiferaw Gurmu, Grant Black and Paula E. Stephan), Economic Inquiry, 48, pp. 192-213, 2010.

“Science and the University:  Challenges for Future Research,” CESifo Economic Studies, 54, pp. 313-324, 2008.

Who’s Patenting in the University?” (Paula Stephan, Shif Gurmu, A.J. Sumell and Grant Black), Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 61(2), pp. 71-99, 2007.

The Small Size of the Small Scale Market: The Early-Stage Labor Market for Highly Skilled Nanotechnology Workers.” (Paula Stephan, Grant Black and Tanwin Chaing),  Research Policy, Vol. 36(6):887-892, 2007.

The Entrepreneurial Puzzle: Explaining the Gender Gap,” (Paula Stephan and Asmaa El-Gainainy).   Journal of Technology Transfer. 32:475-487, 2007

Standing on Academic Shoulders:  Measuring Scientific Influence in Universities (James D. Adams, Roger Clemmons and Paula E. Stephan),  Les Annales d”Economie et de Statistique, 79/80, pp. 61-90, 2005.

“Women and Underrepresented Minorities in the IT Workforce,” (Sharon Levin and Paula Stephan), Women and Minorities in Science and Engineering, Vol. 11, 2005.

Bioinformatics Training Programs are Hot but the Labor Market is Not,” (Grant Black and Paula Stephan  Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, January 2005, 33:58-62.

Scientific Teams and Institutional Collaborations:  Evidence from U.S. Universities,” (James D. Adams, Roger Clemmons, Grant Black and Paula Stephan), Research Policy, 34:259-285, 2005.

“Leaving Careers in IT:  Gender Differences in Retention,” (Paula Stephan and Sharon Levin)  Journal of Technology Transfer, 30:  383-396. 2005.

Differential Employment Patterns for Citizens and Non-Citizens in Science and Engineering in the United States: Minting and Competitive Effects.  (Sharon G. Levin, Grant C. Black, Anne E. Winkler and Paula E. Stephan), Growth and Change, vol. 335:  456-475, 2004.

Robert K. Merton’s Perspective on Priority and the Provision of the Public Good Knowledge.”  Scientometrics, 60:81-87, 2004.

Doctoral Education and Economic Development:  The Flow of New PhDs to Industry (Paula Stephan, Albert J. Sumell, Grant Black and James Adams.) Economic Development Quarterly, 18(2):151-167, 2004.

“The Economics of Science and Technology” (David Audretsch, Maryann Feldman, John E. Jankowski, Albert N. Link, Donald Siegel, Paula Stephan, Gregory Tassey, Charles Wessner), special issue of The Journal of Technology Transfer, 27(2):155-210, 2002.

Career Stage, Benchmarking and Collaborative Research” (Paula Stephan and Sharon Levin).  International Journal of Technology Management: Special Issue, “Individual Careers and Collective Research: Is it a Paradox?” Vol. 22, Nos. 7/8 (2001), pp. 676-687.

Biotechnology in Europe: lessons from the USA” (David Audretsch and Paula Stephan).  International Journal of Biotechnology, Vol 3, Nos. 1/2 (2001), pp. 168-183.

Exceptional Contributions to U.S. Science by the Foreign-Born and Foreign-Educated” (Paula Stephan and Sharon Levin).  Population Research and Policy Review, Vo. 20, Nos. 1-2 (April 2001), pp. 59-79.

Careers of Young Scientists: Preferences, Prospects and Realities by Gender Field” (Mary Frank Fox and Paula Stephan).  Social Studies of Science, Vol 31, No. 1, February 2001, pp. 109-122.

Educational Implications of University-Industry Technology Transfer.”  The Journal of Technology Transfer, Vol 26, No.3, June 2001, pp 199-205.

“The Knowledge Production Function: Lessons from Biotechnology” (Paula Stephan, Richard Hawkins and David Audretsch).  International Journal of Technology Management, special issue, on “Intellectual Property Protection and Economic Development,” edited by Edwin Mansfield, Vol. 19, Nos 1/2, 2000, pp 165-178.

Bioinformatics: Does the U.S. System Lead to Missed Opportunities in Emerging Fields?  A Case Study” (Paula Stephan and Grant Black).   Science and Public Policy, Vol 26, #6, December 1999, pp 382-392.

Are the Foreign Born a Source of Strength for U.S. Science” (Sharon Levin and Paula Stephan), Science, 285, #5431, August 20, 1999, pp. 1213-1214.

Knowledge Spillovers in Biotechnology: Sources and Incentives,” (David Audretsch and Paula Stephan), Journal of Evolutionary Economics, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1999, pp. 97-107.

Gender Differences in the Rewards to Publishing in Academe: Science in the 1970s” (Sharon Levin and Paula Stephan).  Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, Vo. 38, No. 11/12, 1998, pp. 1049-1064.

The Changing Rewards to Science:  The Case of Biotechnology,” (Paula Stephan and Steve Everhart), Small Business Economics, Vol. 10, No. 2, March 1998, pp. 141-151.

“The Critical Importance of Careers in Collaborative Scientific Research,” (Paula Stephan and Sharon Levin), Revue D’Economie Industrielle, No. 79, First Trimester, 1997, pp. 45-61.

“Le Stress des Jeunes Chercheurs Americains,” Biofutur, No. 167, May 1997, pp. 38-40.

The Economics of Science,” Journal of Economic Literature, Vol XXXIV, September 1996, pp. 1199-1235.

Company-Scientist Locational Links:  The Case of Biotechnology”  (David Audretsch and Paula Stephan),  American Economic Review, Vol. 86, No. 3, June 1996, pp. 64-652.

“Property Rights and Entrepreneurship in Science,” (Paula Stephan and S. Levin) Small Business Economics, Vol. 8, No. 3, June 1996, pp. 177-188.

The Role of Management Attorneys in Union Organizing Campaigns,” (Bruce Kaufman and Paula Stephan), Journal of Labor Research, Vol. 16, 1995, pp. 439-454.

“Planck’s Principle Revisited,” (Sharon Levin, Paula Stephan and Mary Beth Walker), Social Studies of Science, Vol. 25, No. 2, May 1995, pp. 275-283.

Age and the Nobel  Prize Revisited,” (Paula Stephan and Sharon Levin), Scientometrics, Vol. 28, No. 3, pp. 387-99, 1993.

The Relationship between Market Work, Work Aspirations and Volunteering,” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, Vol. 20, Summer 1991, pp. 225-36.

Inequality in Scientific Performance:  Adjustments for Attribution and Journal Impact,” (Paula Stephan and Sharon Levin), Social Studies of Science, Vol. 21, No. 2, pp. 351-68, May 1991.

Research Productivity Over the Life Cycle:  Evidence for Academic Scientists,” (Sharon Levin and Paula Stephan), American Economic Review, Vol. 81, No. 1, pp. 114-132. March 1991.

Publishing Productivity in the Earth Sciences,” (Sharon Levin and Paula Stephan), Eos, October 23, 1990, Vol. 71, No. 43, pp. 1173-1182.

Age and Research Productivity of Academic Scientists,” (Paula Stephan and Sharon Levin), Research in Higher Education, Vol. 30, No. 5, 1989, pp. 531-549.

“The Determinants of Wage Growth Among Industries in the 1970s,” (Bruce Kaufman and Paula Stephan), Industrial Relations, May, 1987, pp. 186-194.

“The Earning Prospects of Female MBAs,”  Business, January-March 1987, Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 37-41.

Sex Segregation in Education:  The Case of Doctorate Recipients,” (Sharon Levin and Paula Stephan), Journal of Behavioral Economics, Vol. XII, No. 2, Winter 1983, pp. 67-94.

“The Allocation of Employment and Training Funds Across States,” (Larry D. Schroeder, David L. Sjoquist and Paula Stephan), Policy Analysis, Vol. 6, No. 4, Fall 1980, pp. 395-407.

Human Capital Production:  Life Cycle Production with Different Learning Technologies,” Economic Inquiry, December 1976, pp. 539-557.

Labor, Leisure and Training Over the Life Cycle,” (Harl Ryder, Frank Stafford and Paula Stephan), International Economic Review, October 1976, pp. 651-674.

The Impact of Income Taxes on Labor’s Productivity:  A Human Capital Approach,” Public Finance Quarterly, October 1975, pp. 361-379.

Midwestern Rural Poverty, Human Rights and the Need for Legal Services,” (Robert Haveman, Ronald Kurtz, Ruth Edelen and Paula Stephan), The Kansas Law Review, May 1967, pp. 513-536.