“5 Ways We Design Our Cities to Make Them Inhospitable to Human Life (Photos) | Alternet.” N.p., n.d. Web. 25 Mar. 2016.
The article by Allegra Kirkland discusses the five types of defensive architecture cities use to exclude certain groups of people. Kirkland talks about how cities and private spaces use defensive architecture like spikes, sprinklers, checkpoints and divided benches to exclude the poor, specifically the homeless. In addition to this, cities also use aural methods like playing unpleasant sounds to prevent people from selling or sleeping around businesses. Kirkland uses the example of the Bill Graham Civic Auditorium which played an industrial sound track to keep people from sleeping on the steps.
I chose this article because it relates with my 7th annotated bibliography which focused on the use of spikes and expands on the different methods of defensive architecture being used in cities to exclude the homeless. This source also relates to the built environment setting found here in Atlanta. Most of the methods mentioned in Kirkland’s article can be seen in use throughout Atlanta. For example, some parks and businesses in Atlanta do use split benches, sprinkler systems, checkpoints and spikes to prevent the homeless from using those areas.
Andreou, Alex. “Anti-Homeless Spikes: ‘Sleeping Rough Opened My Eyes to the City’s Barbed Cruelty’.” The Guardian 18 Feb. 2015. The Guardian. Web. 25 Mar. 2016.
Photograph: Guy Corbishley/Demotix/Corbi
This image depicts the spikes that are placed to prevent the homeless from sleeping or sitting in that spot. These spikes are commonly found in use around stores, parks and under bridges. The use of defensive architecture is present in many cities and even in Atlanta. However, their use has been placed under criticism by the public because it openly excludes and discriminates against the homeless. In addition to this, the use of defensive architecture, like these spikes, has been criticized as it can prevent people that may need a place to sit down and rest as well as limiting the city public life.
I chose this image as my source because it shows architectural exclusion in a very blunt manner. Usually, architectural exclusion goes unnoticed by the general public, however, this image clearly depicts the war that exists on public space. This image was published approximately a year ago, but the use of spikes is still present in most large cities and areas with heavy human traffic. This image is similar to my other annotated bibliography on “Poor doors” as both images are methods of defensive architecture and under heavy criticism from the public.