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Fermentation
Organic compounds are catabolized by fermentation when sulfate, nitrate, or iron is absent from an anoxic environment. In Clostridial fermentation, the Clostridium species either ferments sugars or amino acids. In sugar fermentation, butyric acid, ac (More)
Chemolithotrophy
Chemolithotrophic organisms conserve energy from oxidation of inorganic compounds. In hydrogen oxidation, organisms couple the oxidation of H2 with the reduction of O2 to form water. ATP is produced in this process when H2 is oxidized by O2 and elect (More)
Phototrophy
Phototrophy is the use of light energy by various organisms with CO2 as the focus of carbon energy source. Oxygenic photosynthesis with the help of chlorophylls is one of the most important phototrophic processes. In oxygenic phototrophy, electrons f (More)
Biological Safety
There are rules that should be followed in order to make sure that science does not harm anyone or anything. The number one rule is to register new projects so the science community as a whole is aware of what you are doing. It is also important to m (More)
Microbial niches, communities and guilds
Microbes live in all parts of the biosphere. Microbial activities are important in maintaining the stability of the ecosystem. The habitat of a microorganism is governed by the conditions, both physical and chemical, of its location. A habitat can su (More)
Biofilm
Biofilms are assemblages of bacteria attached to a surface and enclosed in an adhesive matrix. The matrix is made of polysaccharides, proteins, and nucleic acids. These molecules prevent the detachment of cells from surfaces.  Typically biofilms cont (More)
Chlamydiae
Chlamydiae is a phylum of gram-negative bacteria that cause dangerous animal and human diseases. This phylum consists of only one order: the Chlamydiales.  This species of bacteria is obligate intracellular parasites and interacts with a wide variety (More)
Bacteroidetes
Bacteroidetes contains four orders: Bacteroidales, Cytophagales, Flavobacteriales, and Shingobacteriales. There are more than 700 hundred characterized species across the Bacteroidetes orders. The species in the Bacteroidetes phylum are gram negative (More)
Planctomycetes
Planctomycetes are gram negative bacteria. This phylum contains two orders, Planctomycetales and Brocadiales.  They have stalks, and their cells are arranged in rosettes. Planctomycetes lack peptidoglycan in their cell wall. Since they lack peptidogl (More)
Phylogenetics of Bacteria
Phyla of Bacteria is known from 16S rRNA. Though over 80 phyla have been distinguished, most bacteria come from four phyla: Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes.  (More)
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