Commentary of Schindler’s “Architectural Exclusion”

In this post, I will comment on several quotes below from Sarah Schindler’s “Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation Through Physical Design of the Built Environment”, an article that was published in The Yale Law Journal.

In 2013, The Metro transit agency of St. Louis, Missouri implemented dividers on bus stop shelters.

In 2013, The Metro transit agency of St. Louis, Missouri implemented dividers on bus stop shelters. (Source: St. Louis Post-Dispatch)

“…one might think it a simple aesthetic design decision to create a park bench that is divided into three individual seats with arm-rests separating those seats. Yet the bench may have been created this way to prevent people— often homeless people— from lying down and taking naps” (1942).

In recent years, city planners, domestic and abroad, have made decisions to deter people from sleeping on public benches. These actions displace homeless people, who find sleeping on a bench more comfortable than resting on the ground. For the subtle changes in bench design, are often overlooked by individuals who don’t utilize the seating. As these forms of modifications are finished, the affected population are often pushed out from areas where they are not wanted.

“Another common version of this phenomenon is one of the most obvious forms of architectural exclusion: the walls, gates, and guardhouses of gated communities” (1958).

The idea of “gated communities” were  based on the desire for security. Its design intentionally creates a physical barrier between the residents and the outside world. Along with safekeeping their communities, the dwellers disconnect themselves from ever forming relationships with bordering neighborhoods.

An aerial vew of the destruction of the Overtown community, a predominately black neighborhood of Miami, Florida. The images of the construction of I-95 and 395 were taken on August 23, 1967.

An aerial view of the destruction of the Overtown community, a predominately black neighborhood of Miami, Florida. The images of the construction of I-95 and 395 were taken on August 23, 1967. (Source: The Miami Herald )


“The placement of highways so as to intentionally displace poor black neighborhoods is even more familiar. Policymakers ‘purposefully’ decided to route highways through the center of cities, often with the intent ‘to destroy low-income and especially black neighborhoods in an effort to reshape the physical and racial landscapes of the postwar American city'” (1966).

In 1956, the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act, signed by President Dwight D. Eisenhower, set to expand the interstate highway system to link all cities together. The Act adversely disturbed communities across the country for monumental road projects. During this time, cities used the construction of major roads and highways in their favor to stall the integration of public schools. Moreover, officials would cut through disadvantaged areas because the citizens lacked political influence and didn’t have a voice.

How to Edit a Link in Your WordPress Site Menu

For those of you in Mrs. Arrington’s English 1102 class, the link for the submission form under the “Projects” drop-down menu is for Dr. Wharton’s class.

Here are the steps to resolve this issue below (WITH PICTURES [click to enlarge]):

  1. View your “Dashboard”,  find and hover the  “Appearance” tab, and click the “Menu” link.Step 1
  2. Locate the “Submission Form” box.Step 2
  3. Click the arrow next t the “Custom Link” text. Highlight and delete the text in the URL field.Step 3
  4. Copy the link to Mrs. Arrington’s Google Doc ( 4
  5. After pasting the link into the URL field box, save the menu.Step 5

Syllabus Quiz

1. What are the major projects? In a bulleted list, provide links to the project descriptions for each of them.

• Reading Summaries (
• Annotated Bibliography (
• Built Environment Descriptions (
• Built Environment Analysis (

2. How will your final grade be calculated?

I will receive points for attending class and turning in each of the assigned major projects of the course. Along with the point accumulated by submitting the major assignments, I will have the opportunity to earn extra points by completing in-class work, studying, contributing material in the collaborative archive. If I have at least 2,500, I can receive an “A” in the class and 1,475 points amounts to a “C”. The final grade for any number of points between 1,475 and 2,500 will be determined by the top earner of the section.

3. What is the “submission form” and how do you use it?

The Google Doc submission form will be used to turn in all assignments with the exception of the quizzes on Brightspace. When turning in assignments, I must fill out the required fields and provide a link to the submission. I must also click the checkbox that confirms my understanding of the Academic Honesty policy at Georgia State.

4. Embed the form below your answer (hint: Google “embed Google form” to find out how).

5. Embed the course calendar and weekly overview below this question.


Weekly Overview

6. Where on the course website can you find an overview of what’s due and the readings for each unit?

I can find this information under “Syllabus & Course Info” tab on the course website.

7. What is the best way to see an overview of what’s due each week?

The best way to see what’s due each week is to glance at the Google calendar for the course.

8. What is the attendance policy?

Twenty points will be earned per class for attendance and 20 points lost per absence. Showing up to class late will also result in a reduction of points.

9. What are my office hours, and how do you make an appointment to see me outside of class?

Office hours are Tuesdays from 9:30- 11:30AM in Langdale 970. You can be contacted by email or in person to arrange an appointment to meet. Additionally, there is an option to meet in a video chat online via WebEx or Google Hangouts.

10. How do you earn participation credit? Provide a link to the instructions/guidelines for particiption.

I can easily earn participation credit by attending class. Throughout the course, I must interact with my classmates and instructor.

11. How many points can you earn by participating in or organizing a study group session?

Up to 25 points can be earned by participating in a study group.

12. How can you be assured of earning an “A” in this course?

Earning at least 2500 points.

13. What are the minimum requirements for earning a passing grade of “C”?

Completing the bare minimum for major assignments and earning at least 1475 points.

14. What do you do if you’re not sure how to document your participation in order to earn points?

Write what you do in a blog post and submit the link in the Google doc form.